1. George H. Thomas
2. James H. Wilson plus capture of Jefferson Davis
3. Bedford Forrest (excerpts from address by Gen. James R. Chalmers)
4. Opposing forces B&L
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND, Nashville, June 1, 1865.
GENERAL: I have the honor to report the operations of my command from the date of the last report(*) made by me, January 20, as follows:
General A. J. Smith's corps, at that period, was with me at Eastport, Miss.; four divisions of General Wilson's cavalry were encamped on the opposite or north bank of the Tennessee River, at Waterloo and Gravelly Springs, Ala., and the Fourth Corps, Major-General Stanley commanding, was stationed at Huntsville, Ala. This, with the ordinary garrisons of the country, composed my command. The General-in-Chief of the Army having given up the intention of my continuing the campaign against the enemy in Mississippi and Alabama, I received an order by telegraph from Major-General Halleck, chief of staff, to send General A. J. Smith's command and 5,000 of General Wilson's cavalry by river, to report to Major-General Canby, at New Orleans, for the purpose of taking part in an expedition at that time preparing to operate against Mobile. Smith's corps started from Eastport on the 6th of February, and Knipe's division of cavalry left Nashville on the 12th. About the period of the departure of Smith's corps information was received, through various sources, to the effect that part of the shattered remnants of Hood's army, viz, Cheatham's and Lee's corps, were on their way from Mississippi to South Carolina, moving via Selma and Montgomery, Ala., to re-enforce that portion of the enemy's army operating against General Sherman. There remained in Central Mississippi, under General Taylor, but one corps of the enemy's infantry, and about 7,000 of Forrest's cavalry, the headquarters of the command being at Meridian, Miss. On the 6th of February a communication was received from Lieutenant-General Grant, directing an expedition, commanded by General Stoneman, to be sent from East Tennessee to penetrate North Carolina, and well down toward Columbia, S.C., to destroy the enemy's railroads and military resources in that section, and visit a portion of the State beyond the control or reach of General Sherman's column. As the movement was to be merely for the purpose of destruction, directions were given General Stoneman to evade any heavy engagements with the enemy's forces. Again, on the 13th of February, General Grant telegraphed me to prepare a cavalry expedition, about 10,000 strong, to penetrate Northern Alabama, acting as a co-operative force to the movement on Mobile by General Canby. Before leaving Eastport, Miss., I had directed General Wilson to get his command in readiness for just such a campaign, of which the above was simply an outline, my instructions being for him to move on Tuscaloosa, Selma, and Montgomery, Ala., and to capture those places if possible, after accomplishing which he was to operate against any of the enemy's forces in the direction of Mississippi, Mobile, or Macon, as circumstances might demand. The bad state of the roads, combined with the condition of the horses of his command after completing the severe campaign in pursuit of Hood, prevented any movement for the time being, and it was only on the 22d of March that General Wilson, with Upton's, Long's, and McCook's divisions, could leave Chickasaw, Ala. Hatch's <ar103_343> division remained at Eastport, Miss., and R. W. Johnson's at Pulaski, Tenn, it not being possible to mount them fully, to hold the country and prevent guerrilla depredations. When General Sherman was organizing his army for its march to the Atlantic sea-board, in November, he issued an order directing me to assume control of all the forces of the Military Division of the Mississippi not present with him and the main army in Georgia. Based on that order, all the operations of the troops within the limits of the above-mentioned military division have, during the interval, been made under my immediate direction, and I have been held responsible for their faithful execution.
On the 30th of March General Wilson's cavalry reached Elyton, after an extremely difficult, toilsome, and exhausting march, on account of bad roads, swollen streams, and the rough nature of the country, which had also been almost entirely stripped of all subsistence for man or beast. At Elyton Croxton's brigade, of McCook's division, was detached and sent to capture and destroy Tuscaloosa, and then march to rejoin the main body near Selma. With the remainder of his command, General Wilson pushed rapidly forward to Montevallo, where he destroyed five extensive iron-works, and other valuable property. On the outskirts of the town the enemy's cavalry was found in force, attacked, routed, and pursued through Plantersville, leaving in our possession three pieces of artillery and several hundred prisoners. At 3 p.m. on the 2d of April General Wilson reached the immediate vicinity of Selma, and rapidly formed Upton's and Long's divisions to attack the defenses of the town--Long attacking on the Summerfield road, and Upton across a swamp deemed impassable by the enemy. Dismounting two regiments from each of the brigades of Colonels Miller and Minty, General Long and those two officers gallantly leading their men in person, charged across an open field, 500 yards wide, over a stockade, which they tore up as they passed, through the ditch and over the enemy's parapets, sweeping everything before them. Our loss was 46 killed and 200 wounded; Colonel Dobb, Fourth Ohio, among the former, and General Long and Colonels Miller and McCormick among the latter. General Upton met with less resistance than Long--entered the enemy's works and the town, capturing many prisoners. In the darkness and confusion following the assault Generals Forrest, Buford, Adams, Armstrong, and others made their escape. Lieut. Gen. Dick Taylor had left earlier in the afternoon. As the fruits of the victory, however, there remained 26 guns and 2,700 prisoners, besides large amounts of ordnance and other property of great value. Twenty-five thousand bales of cotton had already been destroyed by the enemy. General Wilson remained at Selma from the 2d to the 10th of April, resting his command and completing the destruction of the immense workshops, arsenals, and foundries, and waiting for Croxton to rejoin from his expedition to Tuscaloosa, it having been ascertained, through the enemy, that he captured Tuscaloosa and was moving to Selma via Eutaw. On the 10th General Wilson crossed the Alabama River and moved toward Montgomery, receiving the surrender of that town, without a contest, on the 12th. The enemy burned 85,000 bales of cotton before evacuating. At Montgomery five steam-boats, several locomotives, one armory, and several foundries were destroyed. On the 14th operations were resumed by Upton's division moving through Mount Meigs and Tuskegee toward Columbus, Ga., and Colonel La Grange, with three regiments of his brigade, of McCook's division, marching along the railroad to West Point via Opelika. On the 16th General Upton, with about 400 dismounted men, assaulted and carried <ar103_344> the breast-works of Columbus, saving, by the impetuosity of his attacks, the bridges over the Chattahoochee, and capturing 52 field guns in position, besides 1,200 prisoners. The rebel ram Jackson, nearly ready for sea, and carrying an armament of six 7-inch guns, fell into our hands and was destroyed, as well as the navy-yard, foundries, the arsenal and the armory, sword and pistol factory, accouterments, shops, paper-mills, 4 cotton factories, 15 locomotives, 200 cars, and an immense amount of cotton, all of which were burned. The same day, the 16th of April, La Grange captured Fort Tyler, at West Point, above Columbus on the Chattahoochee, after assaulting it on three sides, the defense being stubborn. Three hundred prisoners, 3 guns, and several battle-flags were taken, besides a large quantity of supplies.
On the 18th the march toward Macon was resumed, Minty's (late Long's) division leading. By a forced march the bridges across Flint River, fifty-four miles from Columbus, were secured, compelling the abandonment by the enemy of five field guns and a large amount of machinery; 40 prisoners were captured and 2 cotton factories destroyed. At 6 p.m. on the 20th of April the authorities of Macon, under protest, surrendered the city to the Seventeenth Indiana, Colonel Minty's advance regiment, claiming, under the provisions of an armistice then reported existing between the forces of Generals Sherman and Johnston, that the capture was contrary to the usages of war. General Wilson, not being at hand when the surrender was made, when the case was reported to him, with admirable good judgment declined to recognize the validity of the claim asserted, as the city had been taken possession of by one of his subordinates before he (General Wilson) could be advised of the existence of an armistice, and he therefore held, as prisoners of war, Maj. Gen. Howell Cobb and G. W. Smith, and Brigadier-Generals Mackall, Robertson, and Mercer. On the 21st General Wilson was notified by General Sherman, from Raleigh, N. C., over the enemy's telegraph wires and through the headquarters of General Joseph E. Johnston, that the reported armistice was a reality and that he was to cease further operations. To return to General Stone-man's expedition from East Tennessee. Owing to the difficulty of procuring animals for his command and the bad condition of the roads, General Stoneman was only enabled to start from Knoxville about the 20th of March, simultaneously with General Wilson's departure from Chickasaw, Ala. In the meantime General Sherman had captured Columbia, S.C., and was moving northward into North Carolina. About this period reports reached me of the possibility of the evacuation of Lee's army at Richmond and Petersburg, Va., and in that event of his forcing a passage through East Tennessee, via Lynchburg and Knoxville. To guard against that contingency, Stoneman was sent toward Lynchburg to destroy the railroad and military resources of that section and of Western ]North Carolina. The Fourth Army Corps was ordered to move from Huntsville, Ala., as far up into East Tennessee as it could supply itself, repairing the railroad as it advanced, forming, in conjunction with Tillson's division of infantry, a strong support for General Stoneman's cavalry column in case it should find more of the enemy than it could conveniently handle and be obliged to fall back. With three brigades, Brown's, Miller's, and Palmer's, commanded by General Gillem, General Stoneman moved, via Morristown, Bull's Gap, and thence eastward up the Watauga and across Iron Mountain, to Boone, N. C., which he entered on the 1st of April,(*) after killing or capturing about seventy-five home guards. From Boone he crossed the <ar103_345> Blue Ridge and went to Wilkesborough, on the Yadkin, where supplies were obtained in abundance, after which he changed his course toward Southwestern Virginia. A detachment was sent to Wytheville and another to Salem to destroy the enemy's depots at those places and the railroad, whilst the main body marched on Christiansburg and captured the place. The railroad to the eastward and westward of the town was destroyed for a considerable distance. The party sent to Wytheville captured that place after some fighting and burned the railroad bridges over New River and several creeks, as well as the depots of supplies. The detachment sent to Salem did the same, and proceeded to within four miles of Lynchburg, destroying as they advanced. A railroad was never more thoroughly dismantled than was the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad from Wytheville to near Lynchburg. Concentrating his command General Stoneman returned to North Carolina, via Jacksonville and Taylorsville, and went to Germantown, where Palmer's brigade was sent to Salem, N. C., to destroy the large cotton factories located there and burn the bridges on the railroad between Greensborough and Danville and bet ween Greensborough and the Yadkin River, which was most thoroughly accomplished, after some fighting, by which we captured about 400 prisoners. At Salem 7,000 bales of cotton were burned by our forces. From Germantown the main body moved south to Salisbury, where they found about 3,000 of the enemy defending the place, and drawn up in line of battle behind Grant's Creek to await Stoneman's attack. Without hesitation a general charge was made by our men, resulting in the capture of all the enemy's artillery--14 pieces--and 1,364 prisoners. The remainder scattered and were pursued. During the two days following the troops were engaged destroying the immense depots of supplies of all kinds in Salisbury, and burning all the bridges for several miles on all the railroads leading out of the town.
On the afternoon of April 13 the command moved westward to Statesville and Lenoir, at which latter point General Stoneman left the troops to be disposed of by General Gillem, and proceeded with the prisoners and captured artillery to East Tennessee, reporting his arrival, on the 19th, at Greeneville, and detailing the disposition of his troops, which was as follows: Palmer's brigade, with headquarters at Lincolnton, N. C., to scout down the Catawba River, toward Charlotte; Brown's brigade, with headquarters at Morganton, to connect with Palmer down the Catawba, and Miller's brigade, with General Gillem, was to take post at Asheville, with directions to open up communication through to Greeneville, East Tenn; the object in leaving the cavalry on the other side of the mountains being to obstruct, intercept, or disperse any troops of the enemy going south, and to capture trains. General Gillem followed the directions given him, and marched on Asheville, with Miller's brigade, but was opposed at Swannanoa Gap by a considerable force of the enemy. Leaving sufficient of his force to amuse them, with the balance he moved by way of Howard's Gap, gained the enemy's rear, and surprised and captured his artillery; after which he made his appearance in front of Asheville, where he was met by a flag of truce on the 23d, with the intelligence of the truce existing between Generals Sherman and Johnston, and bearing an order from General Sherman to General Stoneman for the latter to go to the railroad station at Durham's, or Hillsborough, nearly 200 miles distant, whereas the distance to Greeneville, East Tenn., was but sixty. Coming to the conclusion that the order was issued by General Sherman under the impression that the Cavalry Division was still at <ar103_346> Salisbury or Statesville, General Gillem determined to move to Greeneville. The rebel General Martin, with whom he communicated under flag of truce, demanded the rendition of the artillery captured, which, of course, could not be granted, and in return General Gillem requested the rebel commander to furnish his troops with three days' rations, as by the terms of the armistice they were required to withdraw. Had it not been for this, Asheville and its garrison would have fallen into our hands. Up to that period I had not been officially notified of the existence of any armistice between the forces of Generals Sherman and Johnston, and the information only reached me through my sub-commanders, Generals Wilson and Stoneman, from Macon, Ga., and Greeneville, East Tenn., almost simultaneously. The question naturally arose in my mind, whether the troops acting under my direction by virtue of General Sherman's Special Field Orders, No. 105, series of 1864, directing me to assume control of all the forces of the Military Division of the Mississippi "not absolutely in the presence of the general-in-chief," were to be bound by an armistice or agreement made at a distance of several hundred miles from where those troops were operating, and of which they were advised through an enemy then in such straightened circumstances that any ruse, honorable at least in war, was likely to be practiced by him to relieve himself from his difficult position.
Then, again, General Sherman was operating with a movable column beyond the limits of his territorial command, viz, the Military Division of the Mississippi, and far away from all direct communication with it, whereas "the troops not absolutely in the presence of the general-in-chief" were operating under special instructions, and not even in co-operation with General Sherman against Johnston; but, on the contrary, General Stoneman was dismantling the country to obstruct Lee's retreat, and General Wilson was moving independently in Georgia or co-operating with General Canby. Before I could come to any conclusion how I should proceed under the circumstances and without disrespect to my superior officer, General Sherman, Mr. Secretary Stanton telegraphed to me from Washington on the 27th of April, and through me to my sub-commanders, to disregard all orders except those coming from General Grant or myself, and to resume hostilities at once, sparing no pains to press the enemy firmly, at the same time notifying me that General Sherman's negotiations with Johnston had been disapproved. Based on that notification the following dispositions were made with a view of capturing President Davis and party, who, on the cessation of the armistice, had started south from Charlotte, N. C., with an escort variously estimated at from 500 to 2,000 picked cavalry, to endeavor to make his way to the Trans-Mississippi. General Stoneman was directed to send the brigades of Miller, Brown, and Palmer, then in Western North Carolina, to concentrate at Anderson, S.C., and scout down the Savannah River to Augusta, Ga., if possible, in search of the fugitives. General Gillem being absent, Colonel Palmer, Fifteenth Pennsylvania Cavalry, took command of the expedition. By rapid marching they succeeded in reaching and crossing the Savannah River in advance of Davis, and so disposed the command as to effectually cut off his retreat toward Mississippi, and forced him to alter his route toward the Atlantic coast. General Wilson, at Macon, Ga., was also notified of the action taken at Washington on General Sherman's negotiations with Johnston, and he was directed to resume hostilities at once--especially to endeavor to intercept Davis.
Scarcely were the above orders issued and in process of execution, when notification reached me of the surrender by Johnston of all the <ar103_347> enemy's forces east of the Chattahoochee River. General Wilson received similar notification from General Sherman, direct through the enemy's territory, and immediately took measures to receive the surrender of the enemy's establishments at Atlanta and Augusta, and to occupy those points, detailing for that purpose Brevet Major-General Upton with his division. General McCook was sent with a force to occupy Tallahassee, Fla., and to receive the surrender of the troops in that vicinity. Thus a cordon of cavalry, more or less continuous, was extended across the State of Georgia from northwest to southeast, and communication established through the late so-called Southern Confederacy. With characteristic energy, Generals Wilson and Palmer had handbills printed and profusely circulated in all directions throughout the country, offering the President's reward for the apprehension of Davis, and nothing could exceed the watchfulness exhibited by their commands.
On the 3d of May, Davis dismissed his escort at Washington, Ga., and accompanied by about half a dozen followers, set out to endeavor to pass our lines. Nothing definite was learned of the whereabouts of the fugitives until on the evening of the 7th of May, the First Wisconsin Cavalry, Lieut. Col. Henry Harnden commanding, with 150 men, ascertained at Dublin, on the Oconee River, fifty-five miles southeast from Macon, that Davis and party had crossed the river at that point during the day, and had moved out on the Jacksonville road. At daylight on the 8th Colonel Harnden continued the pursuit, finding the camp occupied by Davis on the evening previous, between the forks of Alligator Creek, which was reached just four hours after it had been vacated. The trail was pursued as far as the ford over Gum Swamp Creek, Pulaski County, when darkness rendered it too indistinct to follow, and the command encamped for the night, having marched forty miles that day.
On the 9th Colonel Harnden pushed on to the Ocmulgee River, crossed at Brown's Ferry, and went to Abbeville, where he ascertained Davis' train had left that place at 1 a.m. that same day, and had gone toward Irwinville, in Irwin County. With this information Colonel Harnden moved rapidly on toward the latter town, halting within a short distance of it to wait for daylight, in order to make certain of the capture. Before leaving Abbeville. Colonel Harnden, learning of the approach from the direction of Hawkinsville of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry, Colonel Pritchard commanding, went to meet that officer and informed him of his close pursuit of Davis; Colonel Pritchard stating in reply that he had been sent to Abbeville also to watch for Davis. After Colonel Harnden's departure, Colonel Pritchard, with part of his command, started for Irwinville by a more direct route than that used by the detachment of the First Wisconsin, arriving at Irwinville at 2 a.m. on the 10th, where, on inquiry, it was ascertained that there was a camp about a mile from town on the other road leading to Abbeville. Approaching cautiously, for fear it might be our own men, Colonel Pritchard sent a dismounted party to interpose between it and Abbeville, and then waited for daylight to move forward and surprise the occupants. Daylight appearing, a rapid advance was made and the encampment surprised, resulting in the capture of Jefferson Davis and family, John H. Reagan, Postmaster-General of the so-called Confederacy, 2 aides-de-camp, the private secretary of Davis, 4 other officers, and 11 enlisted men. Almost immediately after the completion of the above movement, Colonel Harnden's men coming down the Abbeville road were hailed by the party sent out during the night by Colonel Pritchard to secure the capture of the camp, and on being challenged <ar103_348> answered "friends," but fell back, under the impression they had come upon an enemy; whereupon shots were exchanged before the real position of affairs could be ascertained, resulting in the loss on one side of 2 men killed and 1 wounded, and of 3 wounded on the other. Considerable feeling was caused by the manner in which the Fourth Michigan effected the apprehension of Davis, to the detriment of Colonel Harnden's party, but great credit is justly due and should be given to the First Wisconsin Cavalry for the persistency of its pursuit, and it is only to be regretted they did not arrive on the ground in time to reap the benefit of their labors. For the full particulars of the operations of both detachments I have the pleasure of referring you to the reports of Lieutenant-Colonel Harnden, First Wisconsin, and Captain Hathaway, Fourth Michigan. With the surrender of Johnston's army to General Sherman all the detachments of the Confederate armies east of the Chattahoochee signified their willingness to surrender, except a few guerrilla bands who were outlawed, special directions being given to grant all such no quarter. On the 7th of May notification was received by me via Eastport and Meridian, Miss., of the surrender of General Taylor's army to General Canby, at Citronelle, Ala., on the 4th.No armed force of the enemy east of the Mississippi remaining to interfere, I gave orders for the occupation by my forces of such portions of the reclaimed territory as it was necessary to hold whilst telegraphic and railroad communication was being restored, to the accomplishment of which the people of the country zealously gave their assistance.
May 16 General Grant, through his chief of staff, General Rawlins, directed me to order to some point north of the Tennessee River all of Wilson's cavalry except 4,000 veterans, who are to remain at Macon, Augusta, and Atlanta, Ga.; those returning to be concentrated at some convenient point in Tennessee or Kentucky, preparatory to being mustered out or otherwise disposed of. All convalescents and others about the hospitals throughout my command not requiring medical treatment have, by virtue of General Orders, No. 77, been mustered out of service. The quartermaster, commissary, and ordnance departments have all been reduced to the smallest scale consistent with the demands of the service. During the past three months the defenses of all the posts within my command have been thoroughly inspected by Brigadier-General Tower, inspector of fortifications Military Division of the Mississippi, whose reports, with drawings attached, I have the honor to forward herewith.(*) For detailed accounts of the operations of the commands of Generals Stoneman and Wilson I invite the attention of the lieutenant-general commanding to the reports of those officers, as well as to those of their subordinates, Generals Gillem, Palmer, and others. They have brought the cavalry arm of the service to a state of efficiency unequaled in any other army for long and difficult marches through the enemy's country, and particularly for self-reliance and fortitude in assaulting strong positions which might well cause hesitation in veteran infantry. Herewith I have the honor to forward the report of Bvt. Brig. Gen. J. G. Parkhurst, provost-marshal-general of my command, giving the number of prisoners and deserters registered at his office during the period of which the foregoing treats.
I am, general, respectfully, your obedient servant,
GEO. H. THOMAS, Major-General, U.S. Army, Commanding
Brig. Gen. J. A. RAWLINS, Chief of Staff, U. S. Army.
Report of prisoners of war received at office of the provost-marshal-general, Department of the Cumberland, from January 21 to May 31 (inclusive), 1865.
A Colonels. F Surgeons.
B Lieutenant-colonels. G Assistant surgeons.
C Majors. H Chaplains.
D Captains. I Non-commisioned officers.
E Lieutenants. J Privates.
Grand total, 1,122.
Report of rebel deserters received at Nashville, Tenn., from January 21 to May 9 (inclusive), 1865.
Received. Commissioned officers. Enlisted men.
January 21 to 31 18 355
February 23 786
March 23 608
April 18 578
May 1 to 9 8 334
Total 90 2,661
Grand total, 2,751.
Report of Confederate officers and enlisted men who voluntarily surrendered themselves, and who have taken the oath of allegiance and been allowed to return to their homes, May 10 to 31 (inclusive), 1865.
Enlisted men 3,559
Report of rebel deserters received and disposed
of at Chattanooga office from January
Received. Commissioned officers. Enlisted men.
January 1 to 31 .... 21
February 4 103
March 10 422
April 8 519
May 32 1,477
Total 54 2,542
Grand total, 2,596.
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF THE CUMBERLAND,
Office Provost. Marshal-General, Nashville, June 8, 1865.
Respectfully forwarded for the information of the major-general commanding.
J. G. PARKHURST, Brevet Brigadier-General and Provost-Marshal-General, &c.
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, MIL. DIV. OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Macon, Ga., May 3, 1865.
GENERAL: I have the honor to submit, for the information of the major-general commanding, the following summary of operations since leaving the Tennessee River, March 22, 1865:
Upton's division marched by the way of Barton's Station, Russellville, Mount Hope, and Jasper, crossing the two forks of the Black Warrior at dangerous fords on the road to Elyton. Long's division marched by the way of Cherokee Station, Frankfort, Russellville, crossed Bear Creek on the Tuscaloosa road, and thence by Thorn Hill and Jasper to Elyton. McCook pursued the same route to the crossing of Bear Creek, and thence by Tuscaloosa road to Eldridge, Jasper, and Elyton. Upton reached Elyton on the 29th, the other divisions on the next day. The march to this place was extremely difficult and toilsome, country rough and barren, roads bad, streams swollen, and approaches treacherous. At Jasper, having previously learned that Forrest was moving toward Tuscaloosa, I gave orders to leave the trains in the forks of the Warrior River, under charge of Capt. William E. Brown, acting chief quartermaster, and Major Archer, with a guard of dismounted men, directed the troops to push forward with the greatest possible rapidity to Montevallo. March 30, detached Croxton's brigade, of McCook's division, to march rapidly on Tuscaloosa, with instructions to take the place, burn the military school, foundry, stores, and bridges, and rejoin the command near Selma by the way of the Centerville road. March 31, crossed the Cahawba at Hillsborough on the railroad bridges; arrived at Montevallo. Upton's division, having reached there the evening before, destroyed Red Mountain Iron-Works, Cahawba Valley Mills, Bibb Iron-Works, Columbiana Works, and much valuable property. At 1 p.m., enemy having made his appearance, Upton moved out and attacked, driving him in great confusion, taking nearly 100 prisoners from Roddey's command or Crossland's (Lyon's old) Kentucky brigade. Camped on Six-Mile Creek, ten miles south of Montevallo. April 1, moved at daylight. Upton, in advance, struck the rebels again at Randolph; drove them rapidly back. At 9 a.m. captured couriers with dispatches from Colonel Anderson, of Forrest's staff, to General Jackson, by which I learned that Jackson's division had camped at Scottsville, on the Tuscaloosa and Centerville road, the night before, and that Croxton had reached Trion. Chalmers at Marion, Ala., but ordered to cross Cahawba and put his division between us and Selma. I immediately ordered McCook, with La Grange's brigade, to march as rapidly as possible, seize the Centerville bridge, push on, form a junction with Croxton, and, if possible, break up <ar103_351> Jackson's force and rejoin the corps by the Centerville and Selma road. The other two divisions pursued the rebels, now known to be under Forrest in person; found them in position on the north bank of a creek at Ebenezer Station, five miles from Plantersville. General Long's advance regiment, the Seventeenth Indiana, of Miller's brigade, made a gallant charge, capturing 1 gun and some prisoners, while Upton, with Alexander's brigade, struck them on the right flank, capturing 2 guns and about 300 prisoners. General Winslow's brigade followed up the advantage, pushing the rebels, now re-enforced by Armstrong's brigade, of Chalmers' division, rapidly beyond Plantersville. Detachments from the Fourth Cavalry destroyed railroad bridges from Montevallo down. Camped at Plantersville, twenty miles from Selma. April 2, marched at daylight, Long's division in advance. Approached city by Summerfield road, Upton's division on the Range Line road. Drove in pickets and closed in upon the defenses by 3 p.m. Having previously obtained detailed plans of the rebel works, made a hasty reconnaissance to ascertain the accuracy of the drawings. Directed General Long to attack on the right of the Summerfield road, whilst General Upton was to penetrate the swamps at a point regarded impassable by the enemy and attack just after dark. Before General Upton could get into position, Chalmers attacked General Long's picket posted on the creek to cover his rear. Long, without waiting for the signal, with admirable judgment, immediately began the attack with two dismounted regiments from each brigade, 1,160 men in all, himself, Colonels Miller and Minty, gallantly leading their men. They charged 500 yards over an open and level field, leaping over and tearing up the stockade in front of the works, pushed through the ditch over the parapet, and swept everything before them. Armstrong's brigade, with nearly 1,500 men, defended that part of the line. General Long was severely wounded in the scalp; Colonels Miller, Seventy-second Indiana, and McCormick, Seventh Pennsylvania, through leg; Colonel Dobb, Fourth Ohio, was killed; Colonel Biggs was shot through the chest. Total loss, 46 killed, 200 wounded. As soon as an order could be got to General Upton, with his usual intrepidity he pushed his division forward, meeting but slight resistance, taking many prisoners. The rebels rallied behind the inner line of works, not yet finished. The Fourth U.S. Cavalry, Lieutenant O'Connell commanding, made a handsome charge, but could not penetrate the works. Rallied and dismounted under a withering fire of musketry; supported by the Seventeenth Indiana, Third Ohio, and Chicago Board of Trade Battery, they carried the inner line in handsome style. By this time it was quite dark, and in the confusion Generals Forrest, Adams, Buford, and Armstrong, with about half of their forces, escaped by the road toward Burnsville; Lieutenant-General Taylor had left at 3 p.m. on the cars. Two thousand seven hundred prisoners, including 150 officers, 26 field guns, and one 30-pounder Parrott in position, about 70 heavy guns, besides large quantities of military stores in the arsenal and foundry, fell into our hands and were destroyed; 25,000 bales of cotton were burned by the rebels. Remained at Selma from the 2d to the 10th of April, waiting for Croxton and the train, resting and destroying the immense shops, arsenal, and foundries. On the 5th McCook joined with the train, but Croxton not heard from. April 6, met General Forrest at Cahawba under flag of truce. Learned that Croxton had burned Tuscaloosa and moved toward Eutaw. Pushed forward construction of pontoon bridge across the Alabama under great difficulties; broken three times by high water and drift wood, but crossed entire command <ar103_352> by daylight of the 10th. Destroyed bridges and resumed the march toward Montgomery, McCook in advance. April 12, 7 a.m., General McCook, with La Grange's brigade, reached Montgomery. Received its surrender. The rebels, having destroyed 85,000 bales of cotton, evacuated the city, and moved toward Columbus, Ga. Destroyed 5 steam-boats, several locomotives, I armory, and several foundries. April 14, resumed the march, Upton's division moving by the road through Mount Meigs and Tuskegee toward Columbus, Colonel La Grange, with three regiments of his brigade, along the line of the railroad by Opelika to West Point. The Second Division, Colonel Minty commanding, followed the direct road to Columbus.
April 16, late in the afternoon, Upton arrived in front of the defenses of Columbus, on the west bank of the Chattahoochee; made reconnaissances, put his troops in position, and at 8.30 p.m., with 300 dismounted men from the Third Iowa, attacked the rebel works on the Salem road; carried them in fine style, and with a part of the Tenth Missouri pushed the retreating rebels so closely as to save the bridges across the river; captured 1,200 prisoners, 52 field guns in position. April 17, General Winslow destroyed the ironclad ram Jackson, mounting six 7-inch rifles nearly ready for sea; burned the navy-yard, arsenal, foundry, armory, sword and pistol factory, accouterment shops, paper.mills, four cotton factories, all the bridges on the river, 15 locomotives, and 200 cars, beside 100,000 bales of cotton and an immense quantity of artillery ammunition. Received news of La Grange's success at West Point. On morning of the 16th he assaulted Fort Tyler on three sides, bridged its ditches, and after a stubborn defense captured the works with nearly 300 prisoners, 3 guns, and several flags; burned 19 locomotives, 200 cars, and a large quantity of supplies. Marched toward La Grange Station. April 18, moved Minty's division toward Macon; Colonel Minty's advance, with Captain Van Antwerp, of my staff, by a forced march seized the Double Bridges across Flint River, fifty-four miles from Columbus, compelled the enemy to abandon 5 field guns and 13 wagon loads of machinery, captured 40 prisoners and destroyed 2 cotton factories. April 20, at 6 p.m., Minty's advance, the Seventeenth Indiana, Colonel White commanding, having marched 104 miles since 6 p.m. of the 18th, reached Macon and received its surrender, General Cobb making no defense, and protesting that under the terms of an alleged armistice between Generals Sherman and Johnston I should withdraw my forces from the place to a point at which I was met by a flag of truce announcing the armistice. I declined without questioning the authenticity of the armistice or its applicability to my command, upon the ground that my subordinates were not authorized to act in such matters; that I had hurried to the front with all dispatch, but not in time to prevent the capture. I should therefore regard it legal and hold the garrison of 1,500 men, including Major-Generals Cobb and G. W. Smith, Brigadier-Generals Mackall, Robertson, and Mercer as prisoners of war. April 21,received telegram through General Johnston from General Sherman announcing a general armistice with a view to final peace, and directing me to cease hostilities and impressments and to contract for the supplies necessary for my command. April 23, made arrangements with General Cobb for the parole of my prisoners. April 29, General Croxton arrived at Forsyth with his command in excellent condition; had skirmished with Jackson on the 1st of April; swam Black Warrior River forty miles above Tuscaloosa; marched rapidly to Northport, opposite Tuscaloosa, attacked and carried the defenses of the bridge. At midnight of the 4th crossed into the town, dispersed <ar103_353> the Alabama Cadets, took 3 guns and 60 prisoners, and destroyed the military school and a large quantity of supplies. Marched toward Eutaw; crossed Sipsey and then turned north, marching toward Jasper. His rear guard had a slight skirmish with Wirt Adams' division near Bridgeville, but sustaining no damages except the loss of a few prisoners and two ambulances. He pursued his march leisurely and crossed the Mulberry Fork of Black Warrior at Hanby's Mills. Hearing from Roddey's fugitives that the corps had captured Selma and marched on toward Montgomery, he pushed through Northern Alabama to Talladega, dispersed Brigadier-General Hill's force of conscripts and deserters, capturing one gun, destroyed the Blue Mountain Iron Works, the last in the State, and continued his march via Carrollton, Newnan, and Forsyth to this place. The skill, sagacity, and good management displayed by General Croxton in this long and arduous march entitles him to great credit. I have recommended him for the brevet of major-general. I have also recommended Generals Upton, Long, Winslow, and Alexander, and Colonels Minty, Miller, and La Grange for the full commission appropriate to their commands. General McCook for brevet of major-general. It is but simple justice to these officers to say that they cannot be excelled for personal gallantry, discipline, zeal, and ability. Their promotions would reflect credit upon the service and fittingly reward them for their admirable devotion to duty and the cause of the country. I shall render a complete report of operations as soon as sub-reports can be made out, in which I shall take occasion to recommend many subordinate officers for brevet promotions.
Requesting the favorable indorsement of the major-general commanding, I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. H. WILSON, Brevet Major-General.
Brig. Gen. WILLIAM D. WHIPPLE, Assistant Adjutant-General, Department of the Cumberland.
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, MIL. DIV. OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Macon, Ga., June 29, 1865.
Brig. Gen. WILLIAM D. WHIPPLE, Assistant Adjutant-General and Chief of Staff,
Headquarters Department of the Cumberland :
GENERAL: I have the honor to transmit herewith a detailed report of operations of the Cavalry Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi, from the let of March, 1865, to the present time, with the reports of Bvt. Maj. Gen. E. Upton, Brigadier-Generals McCook and Long, commanding divisions; Brigadier-General Croxton, Brevet Brigadier-Generals Winslow and Alexander, and Colonels Minty, Miller, and La Grange, commanding brigades. Also the report of Major Hubbard, commanding pontoon train, and Maj. O. L. Greeno, provost-marshal. If not inconsistent with the customs of service and the views of the War Department, I have the honor to request that the reports of division and brigade commanders may be published in the Army and Navy Journal or Official Gazette.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. H. WILSON, Brevet Major-General.
«23 R R--VOL XLIX, PT I» <ar103_354>
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, MIL. DIV. OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Macon, Ga., June 29, 1865.
GENERAL: My last general report of operations, dated at Gravelly Springs, Ala., February 8 , 1865, (*) completed the history of the Cavalry Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi, from its organization to that date. In pursuance of instructions from General Thomas, I was authorized, after the escape of Hood to the south side of the Tennessee River, to assemble the available force of the corps in the vicinity of Eastport, at the head of steam-boat navigation on the Tennessee River, for the purpose of completing the organization and putting the troops in the best possible condition for early active operations. By his direction, after transferring the Seventh Ohio and Fifth Iowa from the Sixth Division, it was ordered to Pulaski with a view to its remaining in Tennessee for local operations. No reports have since been received of its services. On the 24th of January La Grange's and Watkins' brigades, of the First Division, after a fatiguing march arrived at Waterloo Landing, in the northwestern corner of Alabama. They had been detained in Kentucky under General McCook for the purpose of ridding that State of a band of rebel cavalry under Lyon. In pursuance of previous orders, the Third Brigade of this division was then distributed between the First and Second Brigades. Brevet Brigadier-General Watkins, at his own request, was ordered to Nashville to report to Brig. Gen. R. W. Johnson, commanding the Sixth Division, for assignment to the command of a brigade in that division. About the same time the Second Division, Brig. Gen. Eli Long commanding, and newly mounted and equipped, arrived from Louisville, having marched from that place, a distance of 385 miles, in midwinter over bad roads, with scanty supplies of forage, in twenty-eight days. Soon after this Winslow's brigade, of the Fourth Division, arrived by steam transports from the same place. The Second Brigade of this division was then organized by joining the First Ohio (transferred from the Second Division) with the Fifth Iowa and the Seventh Ohio (transferred from the Sixth Division). Bvt. Brig. Gen. A. J. Alexander, a young officer of courage and administrative ability, was assigned to the command. Brig. Gen. B. H. Grierson had been originally assigned to the command of this division, but failing to use due diligence in assembling and preparing it for the field, he was replaced by Bvt. Maj. Gen.' E. Upton, an officer of rare merit and experience. The troops were all cantoned on the north bank of the Tennessee River, Long's, Upton's, and Hatch's divisions and Hammond's brigade, of Knipe's division, at Gravelly Springs, and McCook's division at Waterloo. The aggregate force was about 22,000 men, 13,000 of whom were armed with Spencer carbines and rifles, 16,000 were well mounted on horses, simply requiring a few weeks' rest, feed, and attention to become fit for active service. The balance were poorly armed and dismounted.
On the 3d of February I received instructions to send a division of 5,000 cavalry to General Canby. After consultation with General Thomas it was decided to send Knipe's division; but in order to furnish it with horses it was found necessary to dismount a part of the command remaining behind. General Hatch's division, composed of most excellent troops, had under its gallant commander won great distinction during the recent campaign, but having the largest number of dismounted men, and having been constantly in service from the beginning of the war, I thought it best to take the horses from it necessary to mount the troops about to leave. I wished to give it an opportunity to <ar103_355> rest, furnish it a remount of fresh horses, equipments, and arms, and hoped thereby to make it a model in drill, discipline, and equipment, as it had already made itself in dash, constancy, and the cheerful performance of duty. On the 3d of February the mounted portion of the Seventh Division embarked at Waterloo on transports for Vicksburg. The dismounted portion, with such horses as could be obtained, followed from Nashville under the direct command of General Knipe as soon as transportation could be furnished. Bvt. Brig. Gen. J. H. Hammond had been relieved by direction of the chief surgeon from the command of a brigade in this division after having earned great credit with it in the battles about Nashville and the pursuit of Hood from Tennessee. These changes left under my immediate command 17,000 men, requiring about 5,000 horses to furnish a complete remount. As the troops arrived at Gravelly Springs they were assigned to camps as close together as the circumstances of ground, water, and contiguity to the landings would permit. The mild climate, rocky soil, and rolling surface of the country rendered this altogether the best locality that could have been found for recuperating and preparing both men and horses for an early spring campaign. The camps were laid out with regularity; comfortable quarters for the men and shelters for the horses were constructed without delay, roads were made to the landings, and supplies of forage, rations, clothing, equipments, and ammunition were furnished in great abundance. A thorough system of instruction for men and officers was instituted, and every necessary effort was made to bring the corps to the highest state of efficiency. I transmit herewith a topographical sketch showing the situations of the camps and their arrangements.(*) The plan of that constructed by General Hammond, and afterward occupied by a part of General Upton's division, I regard the best arrangement of a cavalry cantonment yet devised. The influence of the system adopted on the subsequent career of the corps cannot be overestimated. The final victory over Forrest and the rebel cavalry was won by patient industry and instruction while in the cantonments of Gravelly Springs and Waterloo. The great fault in our cavalry system had previously been overwork in detachments and the absence of instruction, organization, and uniformity of equipment.
On the 23d of February General Thomas arrived at Eastport with instructions directing me to fit out an expedition of 5,000 or 6,000 cavalry "for the purpose of making a demonstration upon Tuscaloosa and Selma" in favor of General Canby's operations against Mobile and Central Alabama. After consultation, in which I expressed a belief in the capacity of my command to capture those places and conduct from the latter most important operations, General Thomas gave me permission to move with my entire available mounted force, and authorized me to pursue such a course as 1 might see proper, keeping in view the general objects of the impending campaign. The instructions of Lieutenant-General Grant, transmitted to me by General Thomas after directing me to be ready to march as soon as General Canby's movement had begun, allowed me the amplest discretion as an independent commander. It was at first intended that the expedition should begin its movement by the 4th of March, but heavy rain-storms setting in, the Tennessee River became very much swollen and the roads impassable. Lieutenant-General Grant having directed all the surplus horses purchased in the West to be sent to General Canby, there were no means left in the Cavalry Bureau to mount Hatch's division. I therefore directed him <ar103_356> to turn over his few remaining horses to General Upton and continue the instruction of his command at Eastport. It was expected that the supply departments would soon be able to furnish horses and Spencer carbines, so as to enable him to take the field and join the corps somewhere in Alabama or Georgia. By a voluntary arrangement between Bvt. Brig. Gen. D. E. Coon, commanding the Second Brigade of Hatch's division, and Brigadier-General Croxton, the former also turned over to the latter all the Spencer carbines then in his brigade. By these means the troops of the First, Second, and Fourth Divisions, with the exception of a few hundred, were armed with the Spencer carbine, and all had arms using cartridges with metallic cases. The heavy rains continued, in consequence of which the river overflowed its banks and destroyed a large quantity of grain accumulated for the horses at Chickasaw Landing. The steam-boats could not reach the highlands, except by working their way through the woods and fields, until the river subsided to its natural banks. The crossing was therefore delayed till the 18th instant. Division commanders were directed to see that every trooper was provided with five days' light rations in haversacks, twenty-four pounds of grain, one hundred rounds of ammunition, and one pair of extra shoes for his horse; that the pack animals were loaded with five days' of hard bread, ten of sugar, coffee, and salt, and the wagons with forty-five days' coffee, twenty of sugar, fifteen of salt, and eighty rounds of ammunition. These calculations were made upon a basis of a sixty days' campaign, and under the supposition that the command would be able to supply itself from the enemy's country with everything else in abundance. Only enough hard bread was taken to last during the march through the sterile region of North Alabama. One light canvas pontoon train of thirty boats, with the fixtures complete, transported by fifty six-mule wagons, and in charge of a battalion of the Twelfth Missouri Cavalry, Maj. J. M. Hubbard commanding, was also got ready to accompany the expedition. The entire train, in charge of Capt. W. E. Brown, acting chief quartermaster, numbered not far from 250 wagons, escorted by 1,500 dismounted men of the three divisions. These men were organized into battalions and commanded by Major (now Colonel) Archer.
At daylight on the 22d of March, all the preliminary arrangements having been perfected and the order of march having been designated, the movement began. The entire valley of the Tennessee, having been devastated by two years of warfare, was quite as destitute of army supplies as the hill country south of it. In all directions for 120 miles there was almost absolute destitution. It was, therefore, necessary to scatter the troops over a wide extent of country and march as rapidly as circumstances would permit. This was rendered safe by the fact that Forrest's forces were at that time near West Point, Miss., 150 miles southwest of Eastport, while Roddey's occupied Montevallo, on the Alabama and Tennessee River Railroad, nearly the same distance to the southeast. By starting on diverging roads the enemy was left in doubt as to our real object, and compelled to watch equally Columbus, Tuscaloosa, and Selma. Upton's division, followed by his train, marched rapidly by the most easterly route, passing by Barton's Station, Throckmorton's Mills, Russellville, Mount Hope, and Jasper, to Saunders' Ferry, on the West Fork of the Black Warrior River. Long's division marched by the way of Cherokee Station and Frankfort, but being encumbered by the pontoon train, and having mistaken the road by which it should have ascended the mountain, was considerably delayed in reaching Russellville. From this place it marched <ar103_357> directly south by the Tuscaloosa road till it crossed Upper Bear Creek, thence turned to the eastward by the head of Buttahatchie Creek, crossed Byler's road near Thorn Hill, and struck Blackwater Creek about twenty-five miles from Jasper. The crossing of the last-mentioned stream and the road for six miles beyond were as bad as could be, but by industry everything was forced through to Jasper, and the ford on the Warrior with but little loss of time. McCook's division pursued the same route to Bear Creek on the Tuscaloosa road, but instead of turning to the eastward at that place continued the march toward Tuscaloosa as far as Eldridge, and thence east to Jasper. In this order the different divisions arrived at and crossed the two forks of the Black Warrior River. The ford on the West Branch was extremely difficult of approach as well as of passage. The country on both sides, very rugged and 600 or 700 feet above the bed of the stream, was entirely destitute of forage. The stream itself was at the time likely to become entirely impassable by the rain which threatened to occur at any moment. I had also heard at Jasper on the 27th that a part of Forrest's force under Chalmers was marching by the way of Bridgeville toward Tuscaloosa, and knew that if the true direction of our movement had been discovered it would be but a short time till the balance of the rebel cavalry would push in the same direction. I therefore directed my division commanders to replenish the haversacks, see that the pack animals were fully laden, to leave all the wagons except the artillery, and march with the greatest possible rapidity via Elyton to Montevallo. I felt confident that the enemy would not relinquish his efforts to check the movements of the troops in the hopes of destroying our supply train. I therefore left it between the two streams with the instructions to push on as far as Elyton, where it would receive further orders. By great energy on the part of commanding officers the two branches of the Warrior were crossed, each division losing a few horses but no men.
At Elyton on the evening of the 30th I directed General McCook to detach Croxton's brigade, with orders to move on Tuscaloosa as rapidly as possible, burn the public stores, military school, bridges, foundries, and factories at that place; return toward the main column by the way of the Centerville road and rejoin it at, or in the vicinity of, Selma. Besides covering our trains and inflicting a heavy blow upon the enemy, I hoped by this detachment to develop any movement on his part intended to intercept my main column. General Upton's division encountered a few rebel cavalry at Elyton, but pushed them rapidly across the Cahawba River to Montevallo. The rebels having felled trees into the ford and otherwise obstructed it, the railroad bridge near Hillsborough was floored over by General Winslow. General Upton crossed his division and pushed on rapidly to Montevallo, where he arrived late on the evening of the 30th. Long and McCook marched by the same route. In this region General Upton's division destroyed the Red Mountain, Central, Bibb, and CoLumbiana Iron Works, Cahawba Rolling Mills, five collieries, and much valuable property. All of these establishments were of great extent and in full operation. I arrived at Montevallo at 1 p.m. March 31, where I found Upton's division ready to resume the march. Directly after the enemy made his appearance on the Selma road. By my direction General Upton moved his division out at once, General Alexander's brigade in advance. After a sharp fight and a handsome charge General Alexander drove the rebel cavalry, a part of Crossland's (Kentucky) brigade and Roddey's division, rapidly and in great confusion, toward Randolph. <ar103_358> The enemy endeavoring to make a stand at a creek four or five miles south of Montevallo, General Upton placed in position and opened Rodney's battery (I), Fourth U. S. Artillery, and passing Winslow's brigade to the front they again beat a hasty retreat, closely pursued and repeatedly charged by Winslow's advance. About fifty prisoners were taken with their arms and accouterments, and much other loose materials were abandoned. The gallantry of men and officers had been most conspicuous throughout the day, and had resulted already in the establishment of a moral supremacy for the corps. Upton's division bivouacked fourteen miles south of Montevallo, and at dawn of the next day, April 1, pushed forward to Randolph. At this point, in pursuance of the order of march for the day, General Upton turned to the east for the purpose of going by the way of Old Maplesville, and thence by the old Selma road, while General Long was instructed to push forward on the new road. At Randolph General Upton captured a rebel courier, just from Centerville, and from his person took two dispatches, one from Brig. Gen. W. H. Jackson, commanding one of Forrest's divisions, and the other from Major Anderson, Forrest's chief of staff. From the first I learned that Forrest with a part of his command was in my front. This had also been obtained from prisoners; that Jackson with his division and all the wagons and artillery of the rebel cavalry, marching from Tuscaloosa by the way of Trion toward Centerville, had encamped the night before at Hill's plantation, three miles beyond Scottsborough; that Croxton with the brigade detached at Elyton had struck Jackson's rear guard at Trion and interposed himself between it and the train; that Jackson had discovered this and intended to attack Croxton at daylight April 1. I learned from the other dispatch that Chalmers had also arrived at Marion, Ala., and had been ordered to cross to the east side of the Cahawba near that place for the purpose of joining Forrest in my front, or in the works at Selma. I also learned that a force of dismounted men were stationed at Centerville, with orders to hold the bridge over the Cahawba at that place as long as possible, and in no event to let it fall into our hands. Shortly after the interception of these dispatches I received a dispatch from Croxton, written from Trion the night before, informing me that he had struck Jackson's rear, and instead of pushing on toward Tusca-loosa as he was ordered, he would follow up and endeavor to bring him to an engagement, hoping thereby to prevent his junction with Forrest. With this information in my possession I directed McCook to strengthen the battalion previously ordered to Centerville by a regiment, and to follow at once with La Grange's entire brigade, leaving all pack trains and wagons with the main column, so that he could march with the utmost possible celerity, and after seizing the Centerville bridge, and leaving it under protection of a sufficient guard, to cross the Cahawba and continue his march by the Scottsborough road toward Trion. His orders were to attack and break up Jackson's forces, form a junction with Croxton, if practicable, and rejoin the corps with his entire division by the Centerville road to Selma. Although he did not leave Ran dolph till nearly 11 a.m., and the distance to Scottsville was nearly forty rodes, I hoped by this movement to do more than secure the Cen-terville bridge and prevent Jackson from joining the forces in front of the main column. Having thus taken care of the right flank, and anticipated Forrest in his intention to play his old game of getting upon the rear of his opponent, I gave directions to Long and Upton to allow him no rest, but push him toward Selma with the utmost spirit <ar103_359> and rapidity. These officers, comprehending the situation, pressed forward with admirable zeal and activity upon the roads which have been previously indicated. The advance of both divisions encountered small parties of the enemy, but drove them back to their main force at Ebenezer Church, six miles north of Plantersville. Forrest had chosen a position on the north bank of Bogler's Creek and disposed of his force for battle, his right resting on Mulberry Creek and his left on a high, wooded ridge, with four pieces of artillery to sweep the Randolph road, upon which Long's division was advancing, and two on Maplesville road. He had under his command in line Armstrong's brigade, of Chalmers' division, Roddey's division, Crossland's (Kentucky) brigade, and a battalion of 300 infantry just arrived from Selma--in all, about 5,000 men. Part of his front was covered by a slashing of pine trees and rail barricades. As soon as General Long discovered the enemy in strength close upon the main body, he re-enforced his advance guard (a battalion of the Seventy-second Indiana (mounted) Infantry) by the balance of the regiment (dismounted) and formed it on the left of the road. Pushing it forward, the enemy was broken and driven back. At this juncture he ordered forward four companies of the Seventeenth Indiana (mounted) Infantry, Lieut. Col. Frank White commanding. With drawn sabers this gallant battalion drove the enemy in confusion into the main line, dashed against that, broke through it, rode over the rebel guns, crushing the wheel of one piece, and finally turned to the left and cut its way out, leaving 1 officer and 16 men in the enemy's hands either killed or wounded. In this charge Captain Taylor, Seventeenth Indiana, lost his life, after having led his men into the very midst of the enemy and engaged in a running fight of 200 yards with Forrest in person. General Alexander's brigade had the advance of Upton's division, and when within three miles of Ebenezer Church heard the firing and cheers of Long's men on the right, pushed forward at the trot and soon came upon the enemy. General Alexander hastily deployed his brigade mostly on the right of the road with the intention of connecting with Long's left, and as soon as everything was in readiness pushed forward his line dismounted. In less than an hour, although the resistance was determined, the position was carried by a gallant charge and the rebels completely routed. Alexander's brigade captured 2 guns and about 200 prisoners, while I gun fell into the hands of General Long's division. Winslow's brigade immediately passed to the front and took up the pursuit, but could not again bring the rebels to a stand. The whole corps bivouacked at sundown about Plantersville, nineteen miles from Selma. With almost constant fighting the enemy had been driven since morning twenty-four miles.
At daylight of the 2d Long's division took the advance, closely followed by Upton's. Having obtained a well-drawn sketch and complete description of the defenses of Selma, I directed General Long, marching by the flanks of brigades, to approach the city and cross to the Summerfield road without exposing his men, and to develop his line as soon as he should arrive in front of the works. General Upton was directed to move on the Range Line road, sending a squadron on the Burnsville road. Lieutenant Rendlebrock, with a battalion of the Fourth U.S. Cavalry, was instructed to move down the railroad, burning stations, bridges, and trestle-works as far as Burnsville. By rapid marching without opposition the troops were all in sight of town and mostly in position by 4 p.m. As I approached the city I perceived that my information was generally correct. I therefore made a reconnaissance <ar103_360> of the works from left to right for the purpose of satisfying myself entirely as to the true point of attack and the probable chances of success. I directed General Long to assault the enemy's works by moving diagonally across the road upon which his troops were posted, while General Upton at his own request with a picked force of 300 men was directed to penetrate the swamp upon his left, break through the line covered by it, and turn the enemy's right, the balance of his division to conform to the movement. The signal for the advance was to be the discharge of a single gun from Rodney's battery, to be given as soon as Upton's turning movement had developed itself. Before this plan could be put into execution, and while waiting for the signal to advance, General Long was informed that a strong force of rebel cavalry had begun skirmishing with his rear, and threatened a general attack upon the pack train and led horses. He had left a force of six companies well posted at the creek in anticipation of this movement, afterward ascertained to have been made by Chalmers in obedience to the instructions of Forrest. This force was at Marion the day before, and was expected on the road from that place. Fearing that this affair might compromise our assault upon the main position, General Long (having already strengthened the rear by another regiment), with admirable judgment, determined to make the assault at once, and without waiting for the signal gave the order to advance. The troops dismounted, sprang forward with confident alacrity, and in less than fifteen minutes, without ever stopping, wavering, or faltering, had swept over the works and driven the rebels in confusion toward the city. I arrived on that part of the field just after the works were carried, at once notified General Upton of the success, and ordered him to push in as rapidly as possible; directed Colonel Minty (now in command of the Second Division) to gather his men for a new advance; ordered Colonel Vail, commanding the Seventeenth Indiana, to place his own regiment and the Fourth Ohio in line inside the works; hurried up the Fourth U.S. Cavalry, Lieutenant O'Connell, and Board of Trade Battery, Captain Robinson commanding, and renewed the attack. The rebels had occupied a new line but partially finished in the edge of the city. A most gallant charge by the Fourth U.S. Cavalry was repulsed, but rapidly reformed on the left. It was now quite dark. Upton's division advancing at the same time, a new charge was made by the Fourth Ohio, Seventeenth Indiana, and Fourth Cavalry, dismounted. The troops, inspired by the wildest enthusiasm, swept everything before them and penetrated the city in all directions. During the first part of the action the Chicago Board of Trade Battery had occupied a commanding position and steadily replied to the enemy's guns. I regard the capture of Selma the most remarkable achievement in the history of modern cavalry, and one admirably illustrative of its new powers and tendencies. That it may be fully understood, particular attention is invited to the following facts: The fortifications assaulted and carried consisted of a bastioned line on a radius of nearly three miles, extending from the Alabama River below to the same above the city. The part west of the city is covered by a miry, deep, and almost impassable creek; that on the east side by a swamp extending from the river almost to the Summerfield road, and entirely impracticable for mounted men at all times. General Upton ascertained by a personal reconnaissance that dismounted men might with great difficulty work through it on the left of the Range Line road. The profile of that part of the line assaulted is as follows: Height of parapet, six to eight feet; thickness, eight feet; depth of ditch, five feet; width, from tea to fifteen <ar103_361> feet; height of stockade on the glacis, five feet; sunk into the earth, four feet. The ground over which the troops advanced is an open field, generally level, sloping slightly toward the works, but intersected by one ravine and marshy soil, which both the right and left of Long's line experienced some difficulty in crossing. The distance which the troops charged, exposed to the enemy's fire of artillery and musketry, was 600 yards. Particular attention is invited to that part of General Long's report which describes the assault. He states that the number actually engaged in the charge was 1,550 officers and men. The portion of the line assaulted was manned by Armstrong's brigade, regarded as the best in Forrest's corps, and reported by him at more than 1,500 men. The loss from Long's division was 40 killed, 260 wounded, and 7 missing. General Long was wounded in the head, Colonels Miller and McCormick in the legs, and Colonel Biggs in the breast.
I doubt if the history of this or any other war will show another instance in which a line of works as strongly constructed and as well defended as this by musketry and artillery has been stormed and carried by a single line of men without support. Too much credit cannot be accorded to General Long, Colonels Minty, Miller, or Vail, or to the gallant officers and men under their command. I submit herewith a map of Selma and its defenses, surveyed and drawn by Capt. H. E. Noyes, Second U.S. Cavalry, and aide-de-camp.(*) The immediate fruits of our victory were 31 field guns and one 30-pounder Parrott which had been used against us, 2,700 prisoners, including 150 officers, a number of colors, and immense quantities of stores of every kind. Generals Forrest, Armstrong, Roddey, and Adams escaped with a number of men under cover of darkness, either by the Burnsville and river roads or by swimming the Alabama River. A portion of Upton's division pursued on the Burnsville road until long after midnight, capturing four guns and many prisoners. I estimate the entire garrison, including the militia of the city and surrounding country, at 4,000 men. The entire force under my command engaged and in supporting distance was 9,000 men and eight guns. As soon as the troops could be assembled and got into camp I assigned Brevet Brigadier-General Winslow to the command of the city with orders to destroy everything that could possibly benefit the rebel cause. I directed General Upton to march at daylight with his division for the purpose of driving Chalmers to the west side of the Cahawba, to open communication with McCook, expected from Centerville, and in conjunction with the latter to bring in the train. The capture of Selma having put us in possession of the enemy's greatest depot in the Southwest was a vital blow to their cause and secured to us the certainty of going in whatever direction might be found most advantageous. I gave directions to Lieutenant Heywood, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, engineer officer on my staff, to employ all the resources of the shops in the city in the construction of pontoons, with the intention of laying a bridge and crossing to the south side of the Alabama River as soon as I could satisfy myself in regard to General Canby's success in the operations against Mobile. On April 5 Upton and McCook arrived with the train, but nothing definite had been heard of Croxton. McCook had been entirely successful in his operations against Centerville, but on reaching Scottsborough he found Jackson well posted with a force he thought too strong to attack. After a sharp skirmish he retired to Centerville, burned the Scottsborough cotton factory and Cahawba bridge, and returned toward <ar103_362> Selma, satisfied that Croxton had taken care of himself and gone in a new direction. On the 6th of April, having ordered Major Hubbard to lay a bridge over the Alabama with the utmost dispatch, I went to Cahawba to see General Forrest, who had agreed to meet me there under flag of truce for the purpose of arranging an exchange of prisoners. I was not long in discovering that I need not expect liberality in this matter and that Forrest hoped to recapture the men of his command in my possession. During our conversation he informed me that Croxton had had an engagement with Wirt Adams near Bridgeville, forty miles southwest of Tuscaloosa, two days before. Thus assured of Croxton's success and safety, I determined to lose no further time in crossing to the south side of the Alabama. I had also satisfied myself in the meantime that Canby had an ample force to take Mobile and march to Central Alabama. I therefore returned to Selma and urged every one to the utmost exertions. The river was quite full and rising, the weather unsettled and rainy, but by the greatest exertions night and day on the part of Major Hubbard and his battalion, General Upton, General Alexander, and my own staff, the bridge, 870 feet long, was constructed and the command all crossed by daylight of the 10th. So swift and deep was the river that the bridge was swept away three times. General Alexander narrowly escaped with his life; boats were capsized and men precipitated into the stream, but the operation was finally terminated by complete success. The report of Maj. Hubbard, transmitted herewith, will give additional details of interest.(*) Before leaving the city General Winslow destroyed the arsenals, foun-dries, arms, stores, and military munitions of every kind. The enemy had previously burned 25,000 bales of cotton. Having the entire corps except Croxton's brigade on the south side of the river and being satisfied that the rebels could receive no advantage by attempting to again occupy Selma, so thoroughly had everything in it been destroyed, I determined to move by the way of Montgomery into Georgia, and after breaking up railroads and destroying stores and army supplies in that State to march thence as rapidly as possible to the theater of operations in North Carolina and Virginia. Enough horses were secured at Selma and on the march to that place to mount all our dismounted men. In order to disencumber the column of every unnecessary impediment I ordered the surplus wagons to be destroyed and all of the bridge train except enough for twelve bays. The main object for which the latter was brought had been secured by our passage of the Alabama. I also directed the column to be cleared of all contraband negroes, and such of the able-bodied ones as were able to enlist to be organized into regiments, one to each division. Efficient officers were assigned to these commands and great pains taken to prevent their becoming burdensome. How well they succeeded can be understood from the fact that in addition to subsisting themselves upon the country they marched (upon one occasion) forty-five miles, and frequently as much as thirty-five, in one day. In the march from Selma La Grange's brigade, of McCook's division, was given the advance. The recent rains had rendered the roads quite muddy, and a small body of rebel cavalry in falling back before La Grange destroyed several bridges, so that our progress was necessarily slow.
At 7 a.m. April 12 the advance guard reached Montgomery and received the surrender of the city from the mayor and council. General Adams with a small force, after falling back before us to the city, <ar103_363> burned 90,000 bales of cotton stored there, and continued his retreat to Mount Meigs, on the Columbus road. Five guns and large quantities of small arms, stores, &c., were left in our hands and destroyed. General McCook assigned Colonel Cooper, Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, to the command of the city, and immediately began the destruction of the public stores. Major Weston, of the Fourth Kentucky, with a small detachment of his regiment made a rapid march toward Wetumpka, swam the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers, and captured five steam-boats and their cargoes, which were taken to Montgomery and destroyed. Early on the 14th the march was resumed. I instructed Brevet Major-General Upton to move with his own division directly upon Columbus, and to order La Grange with his brigade to make a rapid movement upon West Point, destroying the railroad bridges along the line of his march. I hoped to secure a crossing of the Chattahoochee at one or the other of these places. Minty followed Upton by the way of Tuskegee. McCook with a part of his division remained a few hours at Montgomery to complete the destruction of the public stores. Shortly after leaving his camp near Montgomery, La Grange struck a force of rebels under Buford and Clanton, but drove them in confusion, capturing about 150 prisoners. About 2 p.m. of the 16th General Upton's advance, a part of Alexander's brigade, struck the enemy's pickets on the road and drove them rapidly through Girard to the lower bridge over the Chattahoochee at Columbus. The rebels hastily set fire to it and thereby prevented its capture. After securing a position on the lower Montgomery road General Upton detached a force to push around to the bridge at the factors', three miles above the city. He then made a reconnaissance in person and found the enemy strongly posted in a line of works covering all the bridges, with a large number of guns in position on both sides of the river. He had already determined to move Winslow's brigade to the Opelika or Summerville road and assault the works on that side without waiting for the arrival of the Second Division. I reached the head of Winslow's brigade, of the Fourth Division, at 4 o'clock, and found the troops marching to the positions assigned them by General Upton. Through an accident Winslow did not arrive at his position till after dark, but General Upton proposed to make the assault in the night, and coinciding with him in judgment I ordered the attack. Three hundred men of the Third Iowa Cavalry, Colonel Noble commanding, were dismounted, and after a slight skirmish moved forward and formed across the road under a heavy fire of artillery. The Fourth Iowa and Tenth Missouri were held in readiness to support the assaulting party. At 8 p.m., just as the troops were ready, the enemy at a short distance opened a heavy fire of musketry, and with a four-gun battery began throwing canister and grape. Generals Upton and Winslow in person directed the movement. The troops dashed forward, opened a withering fire from their Spencers, pushed through a slashing and abatis, and pressed the rebel line back to their out-works, supposed at first to be the main line. During all this time the rebel guns threw out a perfect storm of canister and grape, but without avail. General Upton sent two companies of the Tenth Missouri, Captain McGlasson commanding, to follow up the success of the dismounted men and get possession of the bridge. They passed through the inner line of works, and under cover of darkness, before the rebels knew it, had reached the bridge leading into Columbus. As soon as everything could be got up to the position occupied by the dismounted men General Upton pressed forward again, swept away all opposition, took possession of the foot and railroad bridges, and stationed guards throughout <ar103_364> the city. Twelve hundred prisoners, 52 field guns in position for use against us, large quantities of arms and stores fell into our hands. Our loss was only 24 killed and wounded. Col. C. A. L. Lamar, of General Cobb's staff, formerly owner of the Wanderer, slave trader, was killed. The splendid gallantry and steadiness of General Upton, Brevet Brigadier-General Winslow, and all the officers and men engaged in this night attack is worthy of the highest commendation. The rebel force was over 3,000 men. They could not believe they had been dislodged from their strong fortifications by an attack of 300 men. When it is remembered that this operation gave to us the city of Columbus, the key to Georgia, 400 miles from our starting point, and that it was conducted by cavalry, without any inspiration from the great events which had transpired in Virginia, it will not be considered insignificant, although shorn of its importance. General Winslow was assigned to the command of the city. His report will give interesting details in regard to the stores, railroad transportation, gun-boats, armories, arsenals, and workshops destroyed.
After much sharp skirmishing and hard marching, which resulted in the capture of fourteen wagons and a number of prisoners, La Grange's advance reached the vicinity of West Point at 10 a.m. April 16. With Beck's Eighteenth Indiana Battery, the Second and Fourth Indiana Cavalry, the enemy were kept occupied till the arrival of the balance of the brigade. Having thoroughly reconnoitered the ground, detachments of First Wisconsin, Second Indiana, and Seventh Kentucky Cavalry dismounted and prepared to assault Fort Tyler, coverering the bridge. Colonel La Grange described it as a remarkably strong bastioned earth-work, thirty-five yards square, surrounded by a ditch twelve feet wide and ten feet deep, situated on a commanding eminence, protected by an imperfect abatis, and mounting two 32-pounders and two field guns. At 1.30 p.m. the charge was sounded and the brave detachments on the three sides of the works rushed forward to the assault, drove the rebel skirmishers into the fort, and followed under a withering fire of musketry and grape to the edge of the ditch. This was found impassable, but without falling back Colonel La Grange posted sharpshooters to keep down the enemy, and organized parties to gather materials for bridges. As soon as this had been done he sounded the charge again. The detachments sprang forward again, laid the bridges, and rushed forward over the parapet into the work, capturing the entire garrison, in all 265 men. General Tyler, its commanding officer, with 18 men and officers, were killed and 28 severely wounded. Three guns and 500 stand of small-arms fell into our hands. Our loss was 7 killed and 29 wounded. Simultaneously with the advance upon the fort the Fourth Indiana dashed through the town, secured both bridges over the Chattahoochee, scattered a superior force of cavalry which had just arrived, and burned five engines and trams. Colonel La Grange highly commends the accuracy and steadiness of Captain Beck in the use of his artillery. I cannot speak too warmly of the intrepidity, good management, and soldierly ability displayed by Colonel La Grange in this affair, nor too strongly recommend the steadiness, dash, and courage of his officers and men. Capt. Roswell S. Hill, commanding the Second Indiana, dangerously wounded in the assault and previously wounded at Scottsborough, and Lieutenant-Colonel Harnden, commanding the First Wisconsin, slightly wounded, were noticeably conspicuous, and I trust will receive the promotions for which they have been recommended. Colonel La Grange destroyed at this place 2 bridges, 19 locomotives, and 245 cars loaded with quartermaster's commissary, and ordnance stores. Before leaving he established <ar103_365> a hospital for the wounded of both sides, and left with the mayor an ample supply of stores to provide for all their wants. Early on the morning of the 17th he resumed his march toward Macon, passing through La Grange, Griffin, and Forsyth, and breaking the railroads at those places. He would have reached his destination by noon of the 20th but for delay caused by an order to wait for the Fourth Kentucky Cavalry, which had gone through Columbus. The afternoon of the 17th I directed Colonel Minty to resume the march with his division on the Thomaston road toward Macon, and to send a detachment forward that night to seize the Double Bridges over Flint River. Captain Van Antwerp, of my staff, accompanied this party. He speaks in the highest terms of the dash with which Captain Hudson, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, discharged the duties assigned him. By 7 a.m. next day he had reached the bridges, fifty-five miles from Columbus, scattered the parties defending them, and took forty prisoners. Before leaving Columbus General Winslow destroyed the rebel ram Jackson, nearly ready for sea, mounting six 7-inch guns, burned 15 locomotives, 250 cars, the railroad bridge and foot bridges, 115,000 bales of cotton, 4 cotton factories, the navy-yard, foundry, armory, sword and pistol factory, accouterment shops, 3 paper-mills, over 100,000 rounds of artillery ammunition, besides immense stores of which no account could be taken. The rebels abandoned and burned the gun-boat Chattahoochee twelve miles below Columbus. On the morning of the 18th the whole command resumed the march on the route pursued by the Second Division. On the evening of the 20th, when within twenty miles of Macon, the advanced guard, composed of the Seventeenth Indiana (mounted) Infantry, Colonel White commanding, encountered about 200 rebel cavalry on the road, but drove them rapidly back toward the city and saved the Echeconnee and Tobesofkee bridges. Colonel White deserves great credit for the boldness and skill with which he conducted his command. When within thirteen miles of Macon he met a flag of truce in charge of Brigadier-General Robertson, of the rebel army, bearing a written communication addressed to the commanding officer U.S. forces. Colonel White halted the flag and his advance and sent the communication to Colonel Minty, commanding the division. After reading it Colonel Minty forwarded it to me, gave instructions to Colonel White to renew his advance, after waiting five minutes for the flag of truce to get out of the way, and sent a note to General Robertson informing him of his action. I received the communication at 6 p.m. nineteen miles from Macon, and upon examination found that it was a letter from General Howell Cobb, commanding the rebel forces at Macon. The following is a true copy of the original:
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF TENNESSEE AND GEORGIA, Macon, April 20, 1865.
COMMANDING GENERAL U.S. FORCES:
GENERAL: I have just received from General G. T. Beauregard, my immediate commander, a telegraphic dispatch of which the following is a copy:
"GREENSBOROUGH, April 19, 1865.
"(Via Columbia 19th, via Augusta 20th.)
"Maj. Gen. H. COBB:
"Inform general commanding enemy's forces in your front that a truce for the purpose of a final settlement was agreed upon yesterday between Generals Johnston and Sherman, applicable to all forces under their commands. A message to that effect from General Sherman will be sent him as soon as practicable. The contending forces are to occupy their present position, forty-eight hours' notice being given on the event of resumption of hostilities.
"G. T. BEAUREGARD, "General, Second in Command."
My force being a portion of General Johnston's command, I proceed at once to execute the terms of the armistice, and have accordingly issued orders for the carrying out of the same. I will meet you at any intermediate point between our respective lines for the purpose of making the necessary arrangements for a more perfect enforcement of the armistice. This communication will be handed to you by Brig. Gen. F. H. Robertson.
I am, general, very respectfully, yours,
HOWELL COBB, Major-General, Commanding, &c.
Without giving entire credence to the communication, I rode rapidly to the front, accompanied by several officers of my staff, determined to halt the advance at the defenses of the city and see General Cobb, so as to satisfy myself entirely in regard to every point before consenting to acknowledge the armistice, but before I could overtake the advance, or arrest it through an order carried by a staff officer, Colonel White had dashed into the city and received its surrender. The garrison made a slight show of resistance, but laid down their arms promptly at the summons of Colonel White. General Cobb protested at what he professed to regard a violation of the alleged armistice, forgetting that my subordinates could neither acknowledge him as a channel of communication nor assume the responsibility of suspending their operations. I arrived at Macon at 8.30 p.m., had an interview with General Cobb, during which he renewed his protest, insisting that I should acknowledge the existence of the armistice and withdraw my troops to the point at which they were met by the flag of truce. While I had no reason to doubt that an arrangement had been entered into by General Johnston and Major-General Sherman in the terms asserted, I could not acknowledge its application to my command or its obligations upon me till notified to that effect by specific instructions from proper authority, authentically transmitted. My forces, although known as the "Cavalry Corps of the Military Division of the Mississippi," organized under General Sherman's orders, had not served under his direct command since I separated from him at Gaylesville, Ala., in October, 1864. He at that time directed me to report to Major-General Thomas with my troops for the purpose of completing the reorganization and assisting in the operations against Hood and Forrest. From that time till my arrival at this place all of my operations were conducted under instructions either directly from General Thomas, or transmitted through him from Lieutenant-General Grant, but I fully expected to join the armies operating in the Carolinas and Virginia, and therefore to be under and receive my instructions from General Sherman whenever I should reestablish communication with him. I therefore felt it to be my duty to obey whatever instructions General Sherman might send me unless they would clearly injure the cause of our arms. No orders having yet been received by me, I accordingly informed General Cobb, without questioning the existence of an armistice or that it might be applicable to my forces, I could not acknowledge the justice of his protest, but must regard all the acts of my command which had transpired that evening, or which might transpire before the official propagation of the armistice, legitimate acts of warfare. I further informed him, without any regard to the principle just asserted, that I had used all diligence in endeavoring to halt the advance of my troops till I could obtain satisfactory information, and should therefore not withdraw from the city, but continue to hold it and consider the garrison, including the generals, prisoners of war till my conduct was disapproved by competent <ar103_367> authority after full investigation of the case. I was permitted to send to General Sherman by telegraph a dispatch in the following terms:
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Macon, Ga., April 20, 1865---9 p.m.
Maj. Gen. W. T. SHERMAN:
(Through headquarters of General Beauregard, Greensborough, N. c.)
My advance received the surrender of this city this evening. General Cobb had previously sent me under a flag of truce a copy of a telegram from General Beauregard declaring the existence of an armistice between all the troops under your command and those under General Johnston. Without questioning the authenticity of this dispatch or its application to my command, I could not communicate orders to my advance in time to prevent the capture of the place. I shall therefore hold its garrison, including Major-Generals G. W. Smith and Cobb and Brigadier-General Mackall, prisoners of war. Please send me orders. I shall remain here a reasonable length of time to hear from you.
Fearing that it might be tampered with by the rebel telegraph operators, I had it put in cipher, in which shape I have reason to believe it reached its destination. The original was materially changed. I have seen in the newspapers what purported to be the reply of General Sherman, directing me to withdraw from the city and release my prisoners. No such dispatch ever reached me, and had it done so in the most unquestionable form I should have obeyed it with great reluctance, and not until I had received every possible assurance that the case had been fully understood. At 6 p.m. of the 21st I received the following dispatch from General Sherman, and though not in reply to mine, I regarded it as convincing proof that an armistice had actually been agreed upon:
Greensborough, N. C., April 21, 1865--2 p.m.
Major-General WILSON, Commanding Cavalry, Army of the United States:
(Through Major-General Cobb.)
The following is a copy of a communication just received, which will be sent you to-day by an officer:
"HEADQUARTERS MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI, "Raleigh, April 20, 1865.
"Major-General WILSON, " Commanding Cavalry, U. S. Army, in Georgia:
"General Joseph E. Johnston has agreed with me for a universal suspension of hostilities looking to a peace over the whole surface of our country. I feel assured that it will be made perfect in a few days. You will therefore desist from further acts of war and devastation until you hear that hostilities are resumed. For the convenience of supplying your command you may either contract for supplies down about Fort Valley or the old Chattahoochee Arsenal, or if you are south of West Point, Ga., in the neighborhood of Rome and Kingston, opening up communication and a route of supplies with Chattanooga and Cleveland. Report to me your position through General Johnston, as also round by sea. You may also advise General Canby of your position and the substance of this, which I have also sent round by sea.
"W. T. SHERMAN, "Major-General, Commanding."
Please communicate above to the Federal commander.
J. E. JOHNSTON.
I therefore issued the necessary orders to carry it into effect, and determined to suspend operations till I received orders to renew them, or till circumstances apparent to me should seem to justify independent action. General Cobb gave me every assistance in his power in the collection of supplies for my command. He directed his quartermasters and commissaries throughout the State, especially in Southwestern Georgia, <ar103_368> to ship their grain and provisions to me, and this before any terms of capitulation had been made known to him or myself. I had about 17,000 men besides prisoners, and 22,000 animals to feed, and to have been compelled to forage for them would have resulted in the devastation of the entire country in the vicinity of the city. On the 30th of April General Croxton, with his brigade, last heard of through General Forrest, arrived at Forsyth, and the next day marched to this place. After having skirmished with Jackson's force, estimated correctly at 2,600 men, near Trion on the morning of April 2  he determined to effect by strategy what he could not expect to do by fighting, having with him only 1,100 men. He therefore marched rapidly toward Johnson's Ferry, on the Black Warrior River, forty miles above Tuscaloosa, threw Jackson completely off his guard by a simulated flight, crossed his brigade to the west side of the river, and turned toward North port, where he arrived at 9 p.m. April 4 . About midnight, fearing that his presence must become known, he surprised the force stationed on the bridge and crossed into Tuscaloosa. He captured 3 guns, 150 prisoners, and after daylight scattered the militia and State cadets, destroyed the military school, the stores, and public works. He remained at that place until the 5th trying to communicate with General McCook or to hear from me, but without success. Knowing that Jackson and Chalmers were both on the west side of the Cahawba, he thought it too hazardous to attempt a march by the way of Centerville, and therefore decided to move toward Eutaw, in the hope of crossing the Warrior lower down and breaking the railroad between Selma and Demopolis. Accordingly, he abandoned Tuscaloosa, burned the bridge across the Black Warrior, and struck off to the southeast. When within seven miles of Eutaw he heard of the arrival at that place of Wirt Adams' division of cavalry, numbering 2,600 men. Fearing to risk an engagement with a superior force, backed by the militia, he countermarched and moved again in the direction of Tuscaloosa; leaving it to the right, passed on through Jasper, recrossed the West Fork of the Warrior River at Hanby's Mills, marched nearly due east by the way of Mount Pinson and Trussville, crossed the Coosa at Truss' and Collins' Ferries, and marched to Talladega. Near this place he met and scattered a force of rebels under General Hill, captured 150 prisoners and 1 gun, and moved on toward Blue Mountain, the terminus of the Alabama and Tennessee Railroad. After destroying all the ironworks and factories left by us in Northern Alabama and Georgia, he continued his march by Carrollton, Newnan, and Forsyth to this place. He had no knowledge of any movements except what he got from rumor, but fully expected to form a junction with me at this place or at Augusta. The admirable judgment and sagacity displayed by General Croxton throughout his march of over 650 miles in thirty days, as well as the good conduct and endurance of his command, are worthy of the highest commendation. For the details of his operations I respectfully refer to his report, herewith.(*) On the 30th of April I received notice of the final capitulation of the rebel forces east of the Chattahoochee, and the next day, by the hands of Colonel Woodall, the order of the Secretary of War annulling the first armistice, directing the resumption of hostilities and the capture of the rebel chiefs. I had been previously advised of Davis' movements, and had given the necessary instructions to secure a clue to the route he intended following, with the hope of finally effecting his capture. I directed General Upton to proceed in person to Augusta, and ordered General Winslow with the Fourth Division <ar103_369> to march to Atlanta for the purpose of carrying out the terms of the convention, as well as to make such a disposition of his forces covering the country northward from Forsyth to Marietta, so as to secure the arrest of Jefferson Davis and party. I directed General Croxton, commanding the First Division, to distribute it along the line of the Ocmulgee connecting with the Fourth Division and extending southward to this place. Colonel Minty, commanding the Second Division, was directed to extend his troops along the line of the Ocmulgee and Altamaha Rivers as far as Jacksonville. General McCook with about 500 men of his division was sent to Tallahassee, Fla., with orders to receive the surrender of the rebels in that State and to watch the country to the north and eastward. In addition to this, troops from the First and Second Divisions were directed to watch the Flint River crossings, and small parties were stationed at the principal stations from Atlanta to Eufaula, as well as at Columbus, West Point, and Talladega. By these means I confidently expected to arrest all large bodies of fugitives and soldiers, and by a thorough system of scouts hoped to obtain timely information of the movements of important personages. The pursuit and capture of Jefferson Davis have already been reported. (*) A.H. Stephens, Vice-President, and Mr. Mallory, Secretary of the Navy to the rebel Government, and B. H. Hill, Senator from Georgia, were arrested by General Upton's command and sent forward in accordance with the instructions of the Secretary of War.
By reference to the reports herewith it will be seen that since leaving the Tennessee River the troops under my command have marched an average of 525 miles in twenty-eight days, captured 5 fortified cities, 23 stand of colors, 288 pieces of artillery, and 6,820 prisoners, including 5 generals; have captured and destroyed 2 gun-boats, 99,000 stand of small-arms, 7 iron-works, 7 foundries, 7 machine-shops, 2 rolling-mills, 5 collieries, 13 factories, 4 niter works, 1 military university, 3 C. S. arsenals and contents, 1 navy-yard and contents, 1 powder magazine and contents, 1 naval armory and contents, 5 steam boats, 35 locomotives, 565 cars, 3 railroad bridges, and immense quantities of quartermaster's and commissary and ordnance stores, of which no account could be taken, and have paroled 59,878 prisoners, including 6,134 commissioned officers. Our total loss was 13 officers and 86 men killed, 39 officers and 559 men wounded, and 7 officers and 21 men missing. I cannot close this report without calling attention to the remarkable discipline, endurance, and enthusiasm displayed throughout the campaign. Men, officers, regiments, brigades, and divisions seemed to vie with each other in the promptitude and cheerfulness with which they obeyed every order. The march from Montgomery to this place, a distance of 215 miles, was made between the 14th and 20th of April, and, involving the passage of the Chattahoochee River at two important points, both strongly fortified and well defended, is especially worthy of notice. The destruction of iron-works, foundries, arsenals, supplies, ammunition, and provisions in Alabama and Georgia, as well as the means of transporting the same to both the armies under Taylor and Johnstown, was an irreparable blow to the rebel cause. The railways converging at Atlanta, and particularly those by which the immense supplies of grain and meat were drawn from Southwestern Georgia and Central Alabama, were firmly under our control. The final collapse of the entire Southern Confederacy east of the Mississippi «24 R R--VOL XLIX, PT I» <ar103_370> became simply a question of time. Fully appreciating the damage already done, I had determined to make a thorough destruction, not only of them but of everything else beneficial to the rebels which might be encountered on the march to North Carolina and Virginia. It will be remembered that my corps began the march from the Tennessee River with something more than 12,000 mounted men and 1,500 dismounted men. When it arrived here every man was well mounted and the command supplied with all the surplus animals that could be desired. I have already called attention in a previous communication to the good merits of Brevet Major-General Upton and Brigadier-General Long, commanding divisions, and Brigadier-General Croxton, Brevet Brigadier-Generals Winslow and Alexander, and Colonels Minty, Miller, and La Grange, commanding brigades. I have seen these officers tested in every conceivable way, and regard them worthy of the highest honor their country can bestow. For many interesting details and special mention of subordinate officers, I respectfully refer to the reports herewith submitted. The accompanying maps and plans were prepared under the direction of Lieutenant Heywood, of my staff, and will materially assist in understanding the foregoing narrative of the campaign.(*)
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. H. WILSON, Brevet Major-General.
Brig. Gen. WILLIAM D. WHIPPLE, Chief of Staff and Assistant Adjutant-General,
Headquarters Department of the Cumberland.
DAVENPORT, IOWA, January 17, 1867.
GENERAL: As a matter of historical interest and in justice to my late command, the Cavalry Corps of the Military Division of the Mississippi, I have the honor to submit the following report of the pursuit and capture of Jefferson Davis, and to request that the same may be made a part of the official records of the War Department. This report is prepared from the original information in my possession, together with the official reports of the officers serving under me in the closing campaign through Alabama and Georgia.
It will be remembered that after the capture of Selma and the passage of my command to the south side of the Alabama, its march was directed to the eastward by the way of Montgomery, Columbus, and West Point, to Macon. On the evening of the 11th day of April, 1865, one of my officers brought in copies of the Montgomery papers of the 6th and 7th, containing the first news which had reached me of the operations of General Grant about Petersburg, and from which, making allowance for rebel coloring, I supposed he had gained a decisive victory. It was stated that Davis and the rebel Government had already gone to Danville, but that their cause was not yet lost. On the 14th and 15th information was received confirmatory of Lee's defeat and the evacuation of Richmond; it was also reported that Grant was pressing the rebel army back upon Lynchburg. From these facts, together with the many rumors from all quarters indicative of unusual excitement among the rebels, I became convinced that they had met with a great disaster in Virginia, but, as a matter of course, I could obtain no definite <ar103_371> or reliable information as to its extent or the probable course that would be adopted by the rebel Government. I assumed, however, that they would either endeavor to concentrate their forces in North Carolina and make further head against our armies, or that they would disband and endeavor to save themselves by flight. In either case it was clearly the duty of my command to close in upon them on the line upon which it was moving, with the greatest possible rapidity, so as to join in the final and decisive struggle, or to assist in the capture of such important persons as might seek safety in flight. Accordingly our march from Montgomery to Macon, a distance of 235 miles, was made in less than six days, and included the passage of the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers, and the capture of the two fortified towns of Columbus and West Point. In order to cover the widest possible front of operations, and to obtain such information in regard to rebel movements as might enable us to act advisedly, detachments were sent off to the right and left of the main column. At Macon we were arrested by the armistice concluded between Generals Sherman and Johnston, though not until the city had fallen into our possession. During my conference with Generals Cobb and G.W. Smith, on the evening of the 20th, I received the first reliable information in regard to Lee's surrender and the course of events in Virginia.
The situation of my command was peculiar. Originally organized as a corps under General Sherman, the commanding general of the Military Division of the Mississippi, and not having been transferred, it still formed a legitimate part of his command, wherever he might be. General Sherman, with the main body of his army, was at that time in North Carolina moving northward. Before leaving North Alabama he had instructed me to report with my entire corps, except Kilpatrick's division, to Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, to assist in the operations against Hood. It was the intention of General Sherman, however, as developed in frequent conversations with me while lying at Gaylesville, Ala., in October, 1864, that, as soon as Hood could be disposed of, and my command could be reorganized and remounted, I should gather together every man and horse that could be made fit for service and march through the richer parts of Alabama and Georgia for the purpose of destroying the railroad communications and supplies of the rebels, and bringing my command into the theater of operations toward which all our great armies were moving. In the campaign terminating at Macon I had actually moved under the direct instructions of General Thomas, but with the "amplest latitude of an independent commander," transmitted through him from General Grant in person. I found myself cut off from all communication with these generals, but liable to receive orders from either or all of them, and from the Secretary of War in addition. My first duty was clearly to take care of the public interests and to reconcile orders afterward, should they come in conflicting terms from different directions. In anticipation of a final break-up of the rebel forces, I had already determined to keep a sharp lookout for Davis and the leading rebel authorities. As soon as I became satisfied by reliable instructions from General Sherman that he had actually concluded an armistice, and intended it to apply to my command, I felt bound to observe it, but only upon the condition that the rebels should also comply with its provisions in equal good faith. One of those provisions was, that neither party should make any changes in the station of troops during the continuance of the armistice. My command while remaining in camp was therefore kept on the alert, and ready to move in any direction. Having heard from citizens, however, <ar103_372> that Davis was making his way toward the south with an escort, I directed my command to take possession of the railroads, and to send scouts in all directions in order that I might receive timely notice of the rebel movements. The armistice was declared null and void by the President, but at least one day before I had been advised of this through General Thomas and General Gillmore, I received from General Sherman a cipher dispatch informing me of the formal termination of hostilities by the surrender of General Johnston and all the forces under his command east of the Chattahoochee. This was on the 27th day of April. I had already taken precautions to prevent persons of importance from escaping by the railroads, and immediately upon the receipt of the final surrender I made disposition of my command for the purpose of taking possession of the important points in Georgia and paroling the rebel prisoners which might have to pass through them in order to reach their homes. I felt certain that Davis and his cabinet would endeavor to escape to the west side of the Mississippi River, notwithstanding the armistice and surrender, and therefore gave instructions to the different detachments of my command to look out for and capture him and all other persons of rank or authority in the rebel Government.
On the 28th of April Brevet Major-General Upton was ordered with a detachment of his division (the Fourth) to proceed by rail to Augusta, · while the balance of the division, under Bvt. Brig. Gen. E. F. Winslow, was ordered to march by the most direct route to Atlanta--a regiment under Col. B. B. Eggleston having been sent by rail to that place immediately after the receipt of General Sherman's telegram. General E. M. McCook, commanding the First Division, with a detachment of 700 men, was directed to proceed by rail to Albany, Ga., and march thence by the most direct route to Tallahassee, Fla., while General Croxton, with the balance of the division, was held at Macon, with orders issued subsequently to watch the line of the Ocmulgee River from the mouth of Yellow Creek to Macon. Bvt. Brig. Gen. R. H. G. Minty, commanding the Second Division (General Long having been wounded at Selma), was directed about the same time to send detachments to Cuthbert and Eufaula, to watch the line of the Ocmulgee from the right of the First Division to Abbeville, and as much of the Flint and Chattahoochee to the rear as practicable. The ostensible and principal object of this disposition of troops was to secure prisoners and military stores and to take possession of the important strategic points and lines of communication; but the different commanders were directed to keep a vigilant watch for Davis and other members of the rebel Government. The first direct information I received of Davis' movements was on the 23d of April from a citizen who had seen him at Charlotte, N. C., only three or four days before, and had learned there that he was on his way with a train and an escort of cavalry to the south intending to go to the Trans-Mississippi Department. This information was regarded as entirely reliable, and hence the officers in charge of the different detachments afterward sent out were directed to dispose of their commands so as to have all roads and crossings vigilantly watched. It was first thought that Davis would call about him a select force and endeavor to escape by marching to the westward through the hilly country of Northern Georgia. To prevent this Colonel Eggleston was directed to watch the country in all directions from Atlanta. Bvt. Brig. Gen. A. J. Alexander, with the Second Brigade of Upton's division, having reached Atlanta in advance of the division, was directed by General Winslow to scout the country to the northward as far as <ar103_373> Dalton, or until he should meet the troops under General Steedman in that region. On beginning his march from Macon, General Alexander was authorized to detach an officer and twenty picked men, disguised as rebel soldiers, for the purpose of trying to obtain definite information of Davis' movements. This party was place under the command of Lieut. Joseph A. O. Yeoman, First Ohio Cavalry, and at the time acting inspector-general of the brigade. Verbal instructions were also given to other brigade and division commanders to make similar detachments. General Croxton was directed to send a small party toward Talladega by the route upon which he had marched from that place, while Colonel Eggleston was directed to send a party by rail to West Point. By these means it was believed that all considerable detachments of rebels would be apprehended, and that such information would be obtained as would enable us to secure the principal rebel leaders if they should undertake to pass through the country in any other way than as individual fugitives. In declaring the armistice of Sherman null and void the Secretary of War had directed that my command should resume active operations and endeavor to arrest the fugitive rebel chiefs. I accordingly notified him and General Thomas by telegraph of the dispositions I had made, and that I had no doubt of accomplishing the desired object, but having forwarded the records of my command to the Adjutant-General's Department, as required by Army Regulations, and been denied copies of the documents relating to these matters, I cannot now fix the exact dates of these dispatches.
After a rapid march toward the upper crossings of the Savannah River in Northeastern Georgia, Lieutenant Yeoman's detachment met and joined Davis' party, escorted by Dibrell's and Ferguson's divisions of cavalry, probably under Wheeler in person, and continued with them several days, watching for an opportunity to seize and carry off the rebel chief. He was frustrated by the vigilance of the rebel escort. At Washington, Ga., the rebel authorities must have heard that Atlanta was occupied by our troops, and that they could not pass that point without a fight. They halted and for some time acted with irresolution in regard to their future course. The cavalry force which had remained true to Davis, estimated at five brigades and probably numbering 2,000 men, now became mutinous and declined to go any farther. They were disbanded and partially paid off in coin, which had been brought to that point in wagons. Lieutenant Yeoman lost sight of Davis at this time, but dividing his party into three or four small detachments sought again to obtain definite information of his movements, but for twenty-four hours was unsuccessful. Persevering in his efforts he became convinced that Davis had relinquished his idea of going into Alabama, and would probably try to reach the Gulf or South Atlantic Coast and escape by sea. Couriers were sent with this information to General Alexander, and by him duly transmitted to me at Macon. The same conclusion had already been forced upon me by information derived from various other sources, and from the nature of the case it seemed quite probable. With railroad communications through Northern Georgia, and a division of 4,000 national cavalry operating about Atlanta, it would have been next to impossible for a party of fugitives, however small, to traverse that region by the ordinary roads. This must have been clear to the rebels. From these circumstances I became fully convinced that Davis would either flee in disguise and unattended, or endeavor to work his way southward into Florida. With the view of intercepting him in this attempt, I directed the crossings of the Ocmulgee River to be watched with renewed vigilance <ar103_374> all the way from the neighborhood of Atlanta to Hawkinsville, and on the evening of May 6, I directed Brigadier-General Croxton to select the best regiment in his division, and to send it under its best officer, with orders to march eastward via Jeffersonville to Dublin, on the Oconee River, with the greatest possible speed, scouting the country well to the northward, and leaving detachments at the most important cross-roads, with instructions to keep a sharp lookout for all detachments of rebels. By these means it was hoped that Davis' line of march would be intersected and his movements discovered, in which event the commanding officer was instructed to follow wherever it might lead, until the fugitives should be overtaken and captured. General Croxton selected for this purpose the First Wisconsin Cavalry, commanded by Lieut. Col. Henry Harnden, an officer of spirit, experience, and resolution. During that day and the next the conviction that Davis would try to escape into Florida became so strong that I sent for General Minty, commanding Second Division, and in person directed him to select his best regiment and order it to march without delay to the southeastward, along the right bank of the Ocmulgee River, watching all the crossings between Hawkinsville and the Ohoopee River. In case of discovering the trail of the fugitives they were directed to follow it to the Gulf Coast, or till they should overtake and capture the party of whom they were in pursuit. General Minty selected for this purpose his own regiment, the Fourth Michigan Cavalry, commanded by Lieut. Col. Benjamin D. Pritchard, an excellent and dashing officer.
In the meantime General Upton, at Augusta, had sent me a dispatch advising me to offer a reward of $100,000 for the capture of Davis, urging that the Secretary of War would approve my action, and that it would induce even the rebels to assist in making the capture. Not caring, however, to assume the responsibility of committing the Government in this way, I authorized him to issue a proclamation offering a reward of $100,000 to be paid out of such money as might be found in the possession of Davis or his party. This was done, and copies were scattered throughout the country as early as the 6th of May. As soon as it was known at Atlanta that Davis' cavalry escort had disbanded, General Alexander, with 500 picked men and horses of his command, crossed to the right or northern bank of the Chattahoochee River, occupied all the fords west of the Atlanta and Chattanooga Railroad, watched the passes of the Allatoona Mountains and the main crossings of the Etowah River, and, with various detachments of his small command, patrolled all the main roads in that region day and night until he received news of Davis' capture in another quarter. The final disposition of my command may be described as follows: Major-General Upton with parts of two regiments occupied Augusta, and kept a vigilant watch over the whole country in that vicinity, and informed me by telegraph of everything important which came under his observation. General Winslow, with the larger part of that division, occupied Atlanta and scouted the country in all directions from that place. General Alexander, with 500 picked men, patrolled the country north of the Chattahoochee, while detachments occupied Griffin and Jonesborough, closely watching the crossings of the Ocmulgee and scouting the country to the eastward. Colonel Eggleston, commanding the post of Atlanta, had also sent a detachment to West Point to watch the Alabama line in that quarter. General Croxton, with the main body of the First Division in the vicinity of Macon, had sent a detachment, under my direction, to the mountain region of Alabama, marching by the way of Carrollton to Talladega, and another through Northeastern <ar103_375> Georgia toward North Carolina, and was also engaged in watching the Ocmulgee from the right of the Fourth Division to Macon, and in scouting the country to his front and rear. General Minty, commanding the Second Division, was scouting the country to the southeast, watching the lower crossings of the Ocmulgee, and had small parties at all the important points on the Southwestern Railroad and in Western and Southwestern Georgia. Detachments of the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry occupied Cuthbert, Eufaula, Columbus, and Bainbridge, and kept a vigilant watch over the lower Flint and Chattahoochee, while General McCook, with a detachment of his division at Albany, and 700 men between there and Tallahassee, Fla., was scouting the country to the north and eastward. We also had rail and telegraphic communication from my headquarters at Macon with Atlanta, Augusta, West Point, Milledgeville, Eatonton, Albany, and Eufaula. By inspecting the map herewith it will be seen that my force of nearly 15,000 cavalry were occupying a well-defined and almost continuous line from Kingston, Ga., to Tallahassee, Fla., with detachments and scouts well out in all directions to the front and rear. From this it will be difficult to perceive how Davis and his party could possibly hope to escape. From the time that they were reported at Charlotte till the final capture I was kept informed of their general movements, and was enabled thereby to dispose of my command in such a manner as to render their capture morally certain. As reported by General Winslow, rumors came in from all directions, but by carefully weighing them the truth became sufficiently manifest to enable me to act with confidence and decision. It is to be regretted now, however, that the hurry of events precluded the use of written orders. In nearly every instance my instructions were given verbally to the division commanders, and by them in turn transmitted verbally to their subordinates. Such written dispatches and orders as were given are preserved in the records pertaining to the Cavalry Corps of the Military Division of the Mississippi, now on file in the Adjutant-General's Office.
In pursuance of my instructions to General Croxton, heretofore recited, Lieut. Col. Henry Harnden, with three officers and 150 men of the First Wisconsin Cavalry, left Macon on the evening of May 6, 1865, and marched rapidly, via Jeffersonville, toward Dublin, on the Oconee River. At Jeffersonville Colonel Harnden left one officer and thirty-five men, with orders to scout the country in all directions for reliable information in regard to the route of Davis' flight. With the balance of his command he continued the march all night and the next day, about 7 p.m. reaching Dublin. During the night and day he had sent out scouts and small parties on all the side roads, in the hope of finding the trail of the party for whom he was looking. Nothing of importance occurred till after he had bivouacked for the night. The white inhabitants of that place expressed entire ignorance and indifference in regard to the movements of important rebels, but were unusually profuse in their offers of hospitality to Colonel Harnden. This, together with the conduct of the colored servants, excited his suspicions, though he gained no valuable intelligence till about midnight, at which time he was informed by a negro man, who went to his camp for that purpose, that Davis with his wife and family had passed through Dublin that day, going south on the river road. The negro reported that the party in question had eight wagons with them, and that another party had gone southward on the other side of the Oconee River. His information seems to have been of the most explicit and circumstantial character. He had heard the lady called Mrs. Davis, and a gentleman spoken of as "President Davis," and said that Mr. Davis had not crossed the <ar103_376> river at the regular ferry with the rest of the party, but had gone about three miles lower down and crossed on a small flat-boat, and rejoined the party with the wagons near the outskirts of the town, and that they had all gone toward the south together. The colored man reported Mr. Davis as mounted upon a fine bay horse, and told his story so circumstantially that Colonel Harnden could not help believing it. The ferryman was called up and examined, but either through stupidity or design, succeeded in withholding whatever he knew in regard to the case. But in view of the facts already elicited, after detailing Lieutenant Lane and sixty men to remain at Dublin, and to scout the country in all directions, Colonel Harnden, at an early hour in the morning, began the pursuit of the party just mentioned. Five miles below Dublin he obtained additional information from a woman which left him no room to doubt that he was on the track of Davis in person. He dispatched a messenger to inform General Croxton of his good fortune, and pushed rapidly in pursuit. The trail led southward through a region of pine forests and cypress, almost uninhabited, and therefore affording no food for either men or horses. The rain began to fall, and as there was no road, the tracks of the wagon wheels upon the sandy soil were soon obliterated. A citizen was pressed and compelled to act as guide till the trail was again discovered. The pursuit was continued with renewed vigor, but, as the wagon tracks were again lost in the swamp bordering on Alligator Creek, the pursuing party were again delayed till a citizen could be found to guide them to the road upon which the trail was again visible. Colonel Harnden reports this day to have been one of great toil to both men and horses. They had marched forty miles through an almost trackless forest, much of the way under the rain, and in water up to their saddle girths. They bivouacked after dark on the borders of Gum Swamp, and during the night were again drenched by rain. Before daylight of the 9th they renewed their march, their route leading almost southwest, through swamp and wilderness, to Brown's Ferry, where they crossed to the south side of the Ocmulgee River. In his anxiety to ferry his command over rapidly, Colonel Harnden allowed the boat to be overloaded. A plank near the bow was sprung loose, causing the boat to leak badly, and, as no means were at hand with which to make repairs, lighter loads had to be carried. This prolonged the crossing nearly two hours. Colonel Harnden learned from the ferryman that the party he was pursuing had crossed about 1 a.m. that morning, and were only a few hours ahead of him on the road leading to Irwinville. At Abbeville, a village of three families, he halted to feed, and just as he was renewing his march he met the advance party of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry, Lieut. Col. B. D. Pritchard commanding, moving on the road from Hawkinsville. Ordering his detachment to continue its march, Colonel Harnden rode to meet Colonel Pritchard, and gave him such information in regard to Davis' movements as he had been able to gather. This was about 3 p.m. After a conversation between these officers, the precise details of which are variously reported, they separated, Colonel Harnden to rejoin his command, already an hour or more in advance, and Colonel Pritchard continuing his march along the south side of the Ocmulgee.
It will be remembered that Colonel Pritchard had begun his march from the vicinity of Macon, on the evening of May 7, under verbal orders given him by General Minty, in pursuance of my instructions. His attention was particularly directed to the crossings of the Ocmulgee River, between Hawkinsville and Jacksonville and the mouth of the Ohoopee, with the object of intercepting Davis and such other rebel chiefs as might be making their way out of the country by the <ar103_377> roads in that region. He had not gone more than three miles before he obtained such additional information in regard to the party as convinced him that it was his duty to join in the pursuit. In this he was clearly right, and had he done otherwise would have been censurable for negligence and want of enterprise. Colonel Harnden having informed him that he had force enough to cope with Davis, Colonel Pritchard determined to march another road, leading to Irwinville by a more circuitous route. Why he did not send a courier on the trail pursued by Colonel Harnden, to notify the latter of his intentions, has not been explained. This would probably have prevented the collision which afterward occurred between his regiment and that of Colonel Harnden, and would not have rendered the capture of Davis less certain. This is not intended to reflect upon the conduct of Colonel Pritchard, for it is believed that this omission was simply an oversight which might have occurred to any confident and zealous officer. In carrying out the plan which he had adopted, Colonel Pritchard selected from his regiment 7 officers and 128 men, and at 4 o'clock began the pursuit, leaving the balance of his regiment under the command of Captain Hathaway, with orders to picket the river and scout the country in accordance with previous instructions. The route pursued by Colonel Pritchard led down the river nearly twelve miles to a point opposite Wilcox's Mill, and thence southwest for a distance of eighteen miles, through the pine forest to Irwinville. He reached this place at 1 a.m. of the 10th, and by representing his command as the rear guard of Davis' party, he succeeded in learning from the citizens that the party which he was searching for had encamped that night at dusk about a mile and a half out on the road toward Abbeville. Having secured a negro guide he turned the head of his column toward that place, and after moving out to within half a mile of the camp, halted, and dismounted twenty-five men under Lieutenant Purinton. This party was directed to move noiselessly through the woods to the north side of the camp, for the purpose of gaining a position in its rear, and preventing the possibility of escape. In case of discovery by the enemy they were directed to begin the attack, from wherever they might be, while Colonel Pritchard would charge upon the camp along the main road. Lieutenant Purinton having reached the point assigned him without an alarm, the attack was delayed till the first appearance of dawn, at which time Colonel Pritchard put his troops in motion, and continued his march to within a few rods of the camp, undiscovered. Having assured himself of his position he dashed upon the camp without delay, and in a few moments had secured its occupants and effects, and placed a guard of mounted men around the camp, with dismounted sentries at the tents and wagons. No resistance was offered, because the enemy had posted no sentries, and were, therefore, taken completely by surprise. Almost simultaneously with this dash of Colonel Pritchard and his detachment, sharp firing began in the direction of Abbeville and only a short distance from the camp. This turned out to be an engagement between the party under Lieutenant Purinton and the detachment of the First Wisconsin Cavalry, which, it seems, had followed the rebel trail the night before till it was no longer distinguishable in the dark, had gone into camp only two or three miles behind the party they had been pursuing so long, and had renewed the pursuit as soon as they could see to march. Both Colonel Pritchard and Colonel Harn-den were informed that Davis had been reported as having with him a well armed body guard of picked men, variously estimated at from ten to fifty. They therefore expected desperate resistance, and hence in the collision which occurred the men of both detachments seemed <ar103_378> inspired by the greatest courage and determination. It was several moments before either party discovered that they were fighting our own people instead of the enemy. In this unfortunate affair two men of the Fourth Michigan were killed, and one officer wounded, while three men of the First Wisconsin were severely and several slightly wounded.
It is difficult under the circumstances as detailed to perceive how this accident could have been avoided. Colonel Harnden certainly had no means of knowing and no reason to suspect that time party whom he had found in his front were any other than the rebels he had been pursuing, while Colonel Pritchard claims that he had cautioned Lieutenant Purinton particularly to keep a sharp lookout for the First Wisconsin, which he knew would approach from that direction. The hurry with which my command was subsequently mustered out of service and the absence of the principal officers prevented an investigation of the details of this affair and the circumstances which led to it. At this late day nothing more can be said of them than what is contained in the official documents already submitted, except that not the slightest blame was ever intended to be cast by me upon Colonel Harnden, as seems to have been assumed by the commission convened by the Secretary of War for the purpose of awarding the prize offered for the capture of Davis. During the firing of the skirmish just referred to the adjutant of the Fourth Michigan, Lieut. J. G. Dickinson, after having looked to the security of the rebel cam p and sent forward a n umber of the men who had straggled, was about to go to the front himself when his attention was called by one of the men to three persons in female attire who had apparently just left one of the large tents near by and were moving toward the thick woods. He started at once toward them and called out "halt!" but not hearing him or not caring to obey they continued to move off. Just then they were confronted by three men under direction of Corporal Munger, coming from the opposite direction. The corporal recognized one of the persons as Davis, advanced carbine, and demanded his surrender. The three persons halted, and by the actions of the two who afterward turned out to be women, all doubt as to the identity of the third person was removed. The individuals thus arrested were found to be Miss Howell, Mrs. Davis, and Jefferson Davis. As they walked back to the tent from which they had tried to escape, Lieutenant Dickinson observed that Davis' high-top boots were not covered by his disguise, which fact probably led to his recognition by Corporal Munger. As the friends of Davis have strenuously denied that he was disguised as a woman, it may not be improper to specify the exact articles of women's apparel which he had upon him when first seen by Lieutenant Dickinson and Corporal Munger. The former states that he "was one of the three persons dressed in woman's attire," and had "a black mantle wrapped about his head, through the top of which could be seen locks of his hair." Capt. G. W. Lawton, Fourth Michigan Cavalry, who published an account of the capture in the Atlantic Monthly of September, 1865, states explicitly, upon the testimony of the officers present, that Davis, in addition to his full suit of Confederate gray, had on "a lady's water-proof cloak, gathered at the waist, with a shawl drawn over the head, and carrying a tin pail." Colonel Pritchard says, in his official report, that he received from Mrs. Davis, on board the steamer Clyde, off Fortress Monroe, a water-proof cloak or robe, which was worn by Davis as a disguise, and which was identified by the men who saw it on him at the time of the capture. He secured the balance of the disguise the next day. It consisted of shawl, which was identified in a similar manner by both Mrs. Davis <ar103_379> and the men. From these circumstances there seems to be no doubt whatever that Davis sought to avoid capture by assuming the dress of a woman or that the ladies of the party endeavored to pass him off upon his captors as one of themselves [boldface mine].
In addition to Davis and his family, Colonel Pritchard captured, at the same time, John H. Reagan, the rebel Postmaster-General; Col. B. N. Harrison, private secretary; Colonels Lubbock and Johnston, aides-de-camp to Davis; four inferior officers, and thirteen private soldiers, besides Miss Howell, two waiting maids, and several colored servants. As soon as breakfast could be prepared Colonel Pritchard, preceded by Colonel Harnden, began his march, with prisoners and wagons, for Macon, about 120 miles to the northwest of Irwinville. The next day he met a courier with copies of the President's proclamation offering a reward of $100,000 for the capture of Davis. This proclamation had been received and promulgated by me on the 9th, and hence the officers and men in pursuit of Davis were in no way inspired by the promise it contained. They performed their part from a higher sense of duty, and too much praise cannot be awarded to Colonels Pritchard and Harnden and the officers and men of their regiments who participated in the pursuit. Colonel Pritchard arrived at Macon on the 13th and reported at once with his prisoners at corps headquarters. Arrangements had already been made, under instructions from the Secretary of War, for forwarding Davis to the North, via Atlanta, Augusta, and Savannah. Colonel Pritchard, with a detachment of his regiment, was directed to deliver his prisoners safely into the custody of the Secretary of War. I also placed in his charge the person of James B. Clay, jr.,(*) for whose arrest a reward had also been offered by the President. Mr. Clay surrendered himself to me at Macon about the 11th of May, having informed me by telegraph from Western Georgia the day before that he would start for my headquarters without delay. A.H. Stephens was arrested by General Upton at Crawfordsville about the same time and also placed in charge of Colonel Pritchard. Brevet Major-General Upton was charged with making the necessary arrangements for forwarding the prisoners and escort safely to Savannah, in the department of General Gillmore. These arrangements were successfully carried out and the prisoners delivered at Fortress Monroe for safe-keeping on the 22d of May. My command had also arrested Mr. Mallory, the rebel Secretary of the Navy, Mr. Hill, senator, and Joseph E. Brown, Governor of Georgia. Breckinridge and Toombs managed to escape by traveling alone and as rapidly as possible, the former having passed through Tallahassee, Fla., only a few hours before the arrival of General McCook at that place.
Immediately after the capture of Davis the detachments and scouting parties of my command were assembled by their respective brigade and division commanders, and, after paroling the bulk of the rebel forces, amounting to about 59,000 men, that had been serving in Florida, Georgia, North and South Carolina, the various regiments were ordered North to be mustered out. From the foregoing narrative it will be seen that the first perfectly reliable information in regard to the movements of Davis was that sent in by Lieut. Joseph A. O. Yeoman, of General Alexander's staff; that the route actually pursued by Davis and his party after leaving Washington was first discovered by Lieutenant-Colonel Harnden at Dublin, and that the capture was actually made one mile and a half north of Irwinville, Ga., at dawn of May 10, by Lieut. Col. Benjamin D. Pritchard, with a detachment of 7 officers and 128 men <ar103_380> of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry. These facts should have been fully developed before this time, but owing to the disbandment of my command, it was impossible till quite recently to obtain the reports of subordinate officers. Colonel Pritchard made his report, by my orders, directly to the Secretary of War, but omitted till last month to send me a copy. Colonel Harnden's report, indorsed by Colonel La Grange and General Croxton, together with that of General Minty's, were submitted in due time and forwarded to the Adjutant-General's Office. I forward herewith the reports of Generals Alexander and Winslow.
In my correspondence with the War Department just after the capture I recommended, probably without due consideration, that the reward of $100,000 offered by the President for the capture of Davis (or that part of it remaining after the families of the men killed in the pursuit had been amply provided for) should be divided according to the law of prize among the actual captors, and that Colonel Hamden and his men should receive medals of honor specially commemorating the part they had taken in the pursuit. This recommendation has not been carried into effect, but the commission, of which General Townsend was president, disallow the claims of Colonel Harnden, and recommend that the members of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry, scouting and picketing the Ocmulgee River over thirty miles north of Irwinville, as well as "the actual captors," shall be included in the distribution of the reward, on the ground that they were performing service of a "most important precautionary character." With just as much reason every other man of the entire cavalry force then on duty in Georgia should also be included in the distribution, as they were performing service of "a most important precautionary character incidental to the immediate purpose of the expedition, and such as could not, without an imputation of neglect of duty, have been omitted to be provided for." Colonel Harnden and his detachment, who were actually within gun sound of the capture, certainly deserve more consideration in this case than any one who remained behind, no matter what duty he was engaged in. I am therefore compelled, in equity and justice, to respectfully recommend, in the further consideration of this matter by the proper authorities, that the strict law of prize be observed. Under this law it seems to me that Colonel Harnden and Lieutenant Yeoman should receive share and share alike with the officers who were actually present at the capture; and I venture to hope that the men who accompanied Colonel Harnden to the vicinity of Irwinville may at least receive the medals of honor heretofore recommended. In making this recommendation I am not unmindful of the services performed by the balance of the corps, and desire to make special mention of Bvt. Maj. Gen. Emory Upton, Brigadier-General Croxton, Brevet Brigadier-Generals Winslow, Alexander, and Minty, and Colonels Eggleston and Howland. These officers and their commands performed the various duties assigned them with cheerfulness, intelligence, and zeal, and are entitled to the highest commendation. I transmit herewith a map showing the railroads, rivers, and important points mentioned in this report, and from which the movements and dispositions of the troops under my command may be fully understood.(*)
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. H. WILSON, Lieut. Col. Thirty-fifth Infantry, Bvt. Maj. Gen., U.S. Army,
Late Major-General of Vols., Comdg. Cavalry Corps, M. D. M.
Bvt. Maj Gen. JOHN A. RAWLINS, Chief of Staff, U. S. Army, Washington, D.C.
HEADQUARTERS ARMY OF THE UNITED STATES,
January 24, 1867.
Respectfully forwarded to the Secretary of War.
U.S. GRANT, General.
[Inclosure No. 1.]
CINCINNATI, November 10, 1866.
DEAR SIR: I have the honor to make the following brief report of the operations of the Fourth Division, Cavalry Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi, during the pursuit and capture of Jefferson Davis. Having at hand little data and no records, I cannot make the statement as full as I would like, but, as the part taken by this division was auxiliary rather than successful, perhaps it is not very important that every detail should be preserved:
About the 1st of May, 1865, 300 men, composed of about equal numbers of the Third and Fourth Iowa Cavalry, were sent to Augusta, being accompanied by Bvt. Maj. Gen. Emory Upton, commanding the Fourth Division. The horses of this body of men were left with their respective regiments, and they went, via Atlanta, by railroad. They did not rejoin their commands until after the capture of Mr. Davis had been reported. At or about the same time the First Ohio Cavalry, Col. B. B. Eggleston commanding, moved also from Macon to Atlanta, marching there in four days. Meantime the colonel had preceded the regiment by railroad, having with him a portion of his regiment. On arriving at Atlanta he, acting under orders from corps headquarters, assumed command of that city, his regiment acting as provost guard. In obedience to orders received from yourself in person, I removed the remaining portions of the division toward Atlanta, leaving Macon on the morning of May 5, and marching that day five miles beyond Forsyth. Having your instructions to keep a lookout for Davis, I wished to gain the neighborhood of Atlanta as early as practicable (keeping also in view the condition of my horses); therefore moved the next day to Griffin, where I received from you the information that the ex-President was trying to escape across Georgia. Leaving Griffin early on the morning of the 7th, I moved through Jonesborough and bivouacked four or five miles north. Being now near Atlanta and in constant communication with Colonel Eggleston, who had scouts well out to the north and east, I had left one company, Fourth Iowa, Captain Pray, at Griffin and one company, Third Iowa, at Jonesborough, with instructions to thoroughly scour the whole neighboring country, particularly to the east, and to at once communicate by couriers all credible information. The most reliable information obtained to this time, and during the 8th instant, led me to believe that Davis had not yet approached the line of the Ocmulgee River and the towns west of the same. I frequently talked with persons who saw him at Washington, Ga. Rumors without number now came from every direction, and if I had obeyed the impulses they gave rise to in almost every mind I should soon have sent out my whole force by detail, and with the expectation that each squad or company would be on the right trail. Believing, however, that I now held a central position to move either south, west, east, or northwest, I remained at this camp on the line of the railroad and waited more definite information, conveying to corps headquarters such as I deemed of moment or value. Becoming convinced that Mr. Davis had not crossed my lines of communication and that he had dispensed with <ar103_382> any considerable escort, I moved on the 9th to Atlanta, and, after consultation with Colonel Eggleston and General A. J. Alexander, decided to let the latter take 200 men of his brigade (the Second) and move up to hold the mountain passes on the line of the Western and Atlantic Railroad as far as Allatoona or Kingston. I now communicated again to the major-general commanding corps my positive belief that Mr. Davis had not come west of the Ocmulgee north of Macon, and my further belief that he would endeavor to escape by going south on the east of that stream (using as heretofore the telegraph mainly). I found that Colonel Eggleston had sent a force of the First Ohio Cavalry southwest to Alabama, acting in obedience to orders from his superiors, and at once directed him to recall the same. I also communicated to Major-General Upton the information I had, as well as my past and contemplated future action, receiving in return his full approval of all. The entire country for several days' march from Atlanta was utterly destitute of food for man or horse, therefore, rations for both must be taken for every movement. Before reaching Atlanta I had had rations prepared in that place for any movement likely to take place, and if there had been any real necessity I could have started with, say, 1,000 well-mounted men in any direction at very short notice. The news of the capture of the great rebel soon reached us, and the entire force was early thereafter reassembled at and near Atlanta. This, general, in brief, constitutes the account of the part taken by the Fourth Division in this effort, and, though no apparent success attended the movements, perhaps they were conducive to that of the parties which did succeed. For my part I am quite willing that the entire credit of the operation shall rest with the expeditions from Macon eastward, and really think, as a commanding officer, I am more entitled to praise for withholding my force from dispersion and for keeping it in hand than for all that was done toward the capture.
Regretting that I have not at hand more perfect information, yet trusting this story is long enough, I am, your obedient servant,
E. F. WINSLOW, Late Brevet Brigadier-General.
Maj. Gen. JAMES H. WILSON.
[Inclosure No. 2.]
FORT UNION, N. MEX., November 8, 1866.
GENERAL: In compliance with your request of October 14, which has just reached me, I have the honor to make the following statement in regard to the capture of Jeff. Davis:
Shortly after the armistice between Generals Sherman and Johnston I was ordered to send one regiment of my brigade to Atlanta, rapidly, to apprehend Davis, who was reported moving in that direction with an escort of cavalry. I accordingly sent the First Ohio Cavalry, Col. B. B. Eggleston commanding. A few days after I was ordered to move to the same point with the remainder of my brigade. Previous to this movement I obtained permission from the major-general commanding the corps to send an officer and twenty men, disguised in rebel clothing, to meet Davis, watch, and if possible capture him. This delicate operation I intrusted to Lieut. Joseph A. O. Yeoman, a dashing young officer of the First Ohio Cavalry, of great intelligence and coolness, and who was at that time acting as inspector-general for my brigade. Lieutenant Yeoman moved rapidly to Northeastern Georgia, where he met and joined Davis' escort, consisting of Dibrell's division of cavalry. He marched with them two or three days, but could not get an opportunity <ar103_383> of seizing on the person of Davis on account of the close watch on every one who approached his person. At Washington, Ga. (I think), the forces under Dibrell heard that Atlanta was occupied by our troops, and that they could not pass that point without a fight, accordingly disbanded during the night, and sought their homes in small parties. Lieutenant Yeoman scattered his men among the various bands to try and get some trace of Davis, but for twenty-four hours was unsuccessful. He finally found he had abandoned the idea of going into Alabama, and was making south to leave the country. Lieutenant Yeoman kept the command at Atlanta advised of all his movements, and the commanding officer advised the major-general commanding the corps by telegraph. When the information came to Atlanta that the command of Dibrell had scattered, and that Davis was trying to escape in disguise, I took 500 picked men and horses of my command, crossed the right bank of the Chattahoochee, occupied all the fords below the railroad, the passes in the Allatoona Mountains, and the main crossings of the Etowah River. I also patrolled the main roads day and night, arresting every one passing, until I heard Davis had been arrested by a regiment sent out by the major-general commanding the corps. I trust Lieutenant Yeoman will receive some recognition of his services, as he was the only officer who really risked his life; and I believe the information furnished by him caused the major-general commanding to send out the party that made the arrest.
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. J. ALEXANDER, Capt. and Bvt. Col., U.S. Army, late Bvt. Brig. Gen. of Vols.,
Comdg. 2d Brig., 4th Div., Cav. Corps, Mil. Div. of the Miss.
Maj. Gen. JAMES H. WILSON, U.S. Army.
Itinerary of the Cavalry Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi.(*)
March 1 to 22.--The Cavalry Corps remained near Gravelly Springs, Waterloo, and Chickasaw, on the Tennessee River, while every exertion was being made to put the troops in the best possible condition for the expected campaign. The forage received was of bad quality, and it required the utmost attention to keep the horses in serviceable condition. The crossing of the Tennessee River was delayed on account of the high water.
March 19.--The corps was ready to move in the morning, but the non-arrival of forage delayed the movement.
March 22.--In the morning the First, Second, and Fourth Divisions, commanded, respectively, by Brigadier-Generals McCook and Long, and Brevet Major-General Upton, left camp near Chickasaw and marched via Russellville, Thorn Hill, Jasper, crossed the two dangerous forks of the Black Warrior River (the Locust and Mulberry), and arrived at Elyton on March 29 and 30. The wagon train was left with 1,200 or 1,400 dismounted men to make its way slowly after the main column.
March 30.--General Croxton's brigade, of McCook's division, was ordered to proceed to Tuscaloosa and destroy the public buildings and rebel stores at that place, and rejoin the command by way of Centerville at Selma.
March 31.--Long's division, with La Grange's brigade, of McCook's division, crossed the Cahawba at Hillsborough on the railroad bridge and arrived at Montevallo. Upton, in advance, reached Montevallo the evening before, destroyed Red Mountain Iron-Works, Cahawba Valley <ar103_384> Mills, Bibb Iron-Works, Columbiana Works, and much valuable property. At 1 p.m. the enemy made his appearance at Montevallo. Upton moved out, attacked, driving him back in great confusion, taking nearly 100 prisoners from Roddey's command and Crossland's (Lyon's old) (Kentucky) brigade. The command encamped ten miles south of Montevallo on the Selma road.
The Fifth Division, Brigadier-General Hatch commanding, was left at Eastport, on the Tennessee River. The Sixth Division, Brig. Gen. R. W. Johnson commanding, headquarters at Pulaski. The Third Division, Brigadier-General Kilpatrick, with General Sherman.
April 1.--The First, Second, and Fourth Divisions of Cavalry Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi, operating in Alabama, moved at daylight; met the rebels again at Randolph, drove them, captured courier with dispatches from Colonel Anderson, of Forrest's staff, and General Jackson, by which it was learned that Jackson's division (rebel) had crossed at Scottsville, on the Tuscaloosa and Centerville road, the night before, and that Croxton's brigade, Cavalry Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi, had reached Trion. Chalmers' (rebel) division at Marion, Ala., but ordered to cross Cahawba River and place himself between the U.S. forces and Selma. General McCook was ordered to take La Grange's brigade, to march rapidly, seize Centerville bridge, push on, join Croxton if possible, break up Jackson's (rebel) force, and rejoin the corps via Centerville.
The Second and Fourth Divisions pursued the rebels under Forrest in person; found them in position at Ebenezer Station, five miles from Plantersville, on Selma road. Long attacked the enemy in front, while Upton, with Brevet Brigadier-General Alexander's brigade, struck them on the right flank, broke the rebels up, captured 3 guns and 300 prisoners; guns and prisoners captured by both divisions. Detachment of the Fourth U.S. Cavalry destroyed railroad bridges, &c., from Montevallo down; encamped at Plantersville.
April 2.--Marched to and captured Selma, 2,700 prisoners, including 150 officers, 26 field guns, one 30-pounder Parrott in position, large quantities of military stores, arsenal, foundries, &c. Remained at Selma until the 9th waiting for Croxton's brigade. McCook did not succeed in joining him and rejoined the corps pursuant to orders. Train arrived safely.
April 10.--Resumed the march, having crossed the Alabama River with great difficulty. The pontoon bridge broke three times; river high and current rapid.
April 12.--McCook with La Grange entered Montgomery. Rebels retired without fighting. Destroyed 85,000 bales of cotton at Montgomery.
April 14.--Resumed march via Tuskegee to Columbus. La Grange moved toward West Point, Upton toward Columbus, and Long also.
April 16.--Upton arrived at, assaulted, and captured Columbus, 1,200 prisoners, 52 field guns in position, destroyed military stores, iron-clad ram Jackson, arsenal, navy-yard, foundry, paper-mills, 15 locomotives, 200 cars, 100,000 bales of cotton [and an] immense amount of artillery ammunition. La Grange assaulted fort at West Point same day; captured 3 guns, 300 prisoners, burned 19 1ocomotives, 200 cars, and large quantities of supplies.
April 18.--Marched toward Macon.
April 20.--Arrived at Macon and received surrender of the city. Received information of the armistice between Generals Sherman and Johnston. <ar103_385>
April 29.--General Croxton arrived at Forsyth, Ga.; had captured Tuscaloosa, and rejoined the corps via Jasper, Ala., Bridgeville, Talladega, Carrollton, and Newman. Met and dispersed several large bodies of the enemy.
Remained in Macon and vicinity until the close of the month.
[May--.]--Headquarters Cavalry Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi, at Macon, Ga.
May 4.--Brevet Major-General Upton's (Fourth) division was ordered to Atlanta to preserve order and carry out the terms of the convention, to make a disposition of the troops so as to cover the country from Forsyth, Ga., to Marietta, to prevent the escape of Jefferson Davis. Brigadier-General McCook was ordered with 500 men to Tallahassee, Fla., to receive the surrender of the rebels in that State, and to intercept Jefferson Davis should he attempt to escape that way.
General Croxton, commanding First Division, in absence of General McCook, was ordered to picket the line of the Ocmulgee as far south as Macon, the Second Division to picket the Ocmulgee from Macon to below Hawkinsville.
The corps was compelled to subsist upon stores captured from the enemy and what could be purchased from the inhabitants. A considerable number of the horses died.
May 10.--Jefferson Davis was captured by the joint efforts of the Fourth Michigan and First Wisconsin Cavalry at Irwinville, Irwin County.
During the month every effort was made by the division and detachment commanders to alleviate the sufferings of the poor in Georgia. Portions of the Cavalry Corps were ordered to Chattanooga during the month, pursuant to orders from headquarters department of the Cumberland.
March 11.--The command broke camp at Waterloo and crossed the Tennessee River to Chickasaw, Ala., remaining in camp near that place until March 22, when it marched to Buzzard Roost, fourteen miles.
March 23.--Moved in rear of pontoon train over bad roads in the direction of Frankfort; marched ten miles.
March 24.--Marched via Frankfort and Russellville on Tuscaloosa road.
March 25.--Marched on Tuscaloosa road twenty-six miles, crossing Bear Creek and Buttahatchie River.
March 26.--Moved on Fayetteville and Byler's road twenty miles; encamped near Eldridge.
March 27.--Marched via Jasper to Saunders' Ford, on Mulberry Fork of Black Warrior River (twenty-nine miles), and encamped.
March 28.--Crossed the river and marched fifteen miles to Locust Fork of Black Warrior.
March 29.--Crossed and marched eighteen miles to Hawkins', two miles from Elyton.
March 30.--Moved eight miles on Montevallo road and encamped with Second Brigade and battery. The First Brigade was sent out in direction of Tuscaloosa in obedience to order from corps commander.
March 31.--Marched thirty miles and crossed Cahawba River on railroad bridge. Passed through Montevallo and encamped four miles from that place. «25 R R--VOL XLIX, PT I» <ar103_386>
April 1.--Marched with Second Brigade from Montevallo, Ala., via Randolph, to Centerville. Crossed Cahawba River to Scottsville to support First Brigade, skirmishing at the latter place.
April 2.--Learned that First Brigade is moving on Tuscaloosa. Reconnoitered and found the enemy in force between the two. Returned by way of Centerville toward Selma.
April 3.--Encamped near Plantersville.
April 4.--Returned to vicinity of Randolph. Met the train and escorted it to Selma, arriving on the 6th.
April 9.--Crossed Alabama River.
April 10.--Marched on Montgomery, skirmishing nearly all the way.
April 12.--Arrived at Montgomery, which city surrendered to this command.
April 14.--Left Montgomery; headquarters with detachment marched to Columbus. The Second Brigade marched from Montgomery to West Point, skirmishing much of the way.
April 16.--Captured West Point with all its military stores and rolling-stock of railroad. Carried Fort Taylor [Tyler] by assault. Columbus occupied during the night.
April 17.--Marched from both places to unite the command and move on Macon.
April 21.--Reached Macon about the [sic] time with Second Division, and occupied the place, remaining in camp until the end of the month.
April 30.--The First Brigade rejoined the command at Macon, having marched upward of 600 miles, capturing Tuscaloosa, Ala., with large number of prisoners and artillery and valuable military stores.
First Brigade, First Division.
April 1.--Marched to Johnson's Ferry, on Black Warrior River, thirty miles.
April 2.--Crossed the river; marched twelve miles.
April 3.--Marched to Tuscaloosa, thirty-five miles; surprised and captured the enemy's pickets at the bridge; entered the city, capturing three cannon and a large number of prisoners.
April 4.--In line of battle around the city.
April 5.--Recrossed the river, burning several Government buildings and bridges; marched thirty-four miles; crossed Sipsey Creek.
April 6.--Marched to Bridgeville; recrossed Sipsey Creek and met General Wirt Adams' division; started back toward Tuscaloosa; Sixth Kentucky in rear was pressed; Second Michigan sent to relieve Sixth Kentucky; enemy repulsed; marched forty miles.
April 7.--Marched to Northport, twenty miles.
April 8.--Marched to Prewitt's plantation, fifteen miles north.
April 9 and 10.--In camp.
April 11.--Marched to Windham's Springs, twenty miles.
April 12.--Marched twenty-five miles.
April 13.--Marched fifteen miles; crossed Wolf Creek.
April 14.--Marched twenty-seven miles; crossed Lost Creek and Blackwater River.
April 15.--Marched eighteen miles to Lindsey's Ferry.
April 16.--Crossed Sipsey River.
April 17.--Marched ten miles.
April 18.--Marched sixteen miles; crossed Mulberry River.
April 19.--Crossed Black Warrior River; marched sixteen miles to Jones' Valley. <ar103_387>
April 20.--Marched twenty miles.
April 21.--Marched fifteen miles.
April 22.--Crossed Coosa River; marched twelve miles to Talladega.
April 23.--Marched thirty miles; skirmished with General Hill's brigade; captured one piece of artillery and several prisoners.
April 21.--Marched thirty miles; crossed branch of Talladega River.
April 25.-- Marched thirty miles; passed through Bowdon, Ga.; crossed Tallapoosa River.
April 26.--Marched thirty miles; crossed Chattahoochee River.
April 27.--Marched twenty-five miles; passed through Newnan, Ga.
April 28.--Marched thirty miles.
April 29.--Marched sixteen miles.
April 30.--Passed through Forsyth en route for Macon, Ga.; marched eighteen miles.
May 1.--Arrived at Macon, Ga.
May 1 to 31.--Encamped at Vineville.
Second Brigade, First Division.
April 1.--On the march. Reached Centerville at 3 p.m., driving away the enemy's pickets and securing the bridge over the Cahawba River. Encamped at Scottsville, eight miles beyond.
Next morning made reconnaissance of the enemy's position and found him in force. Captain Hill, commanding Second Indiana, wounded; Lieutenant Smith killed, and six men missing. Fell back to Centerville, burning the bridge at that place.
April 4.--Moved to the vicinity of Randolph to insure the safety of the wagon train.
April 6.--Escorted it safely into Selma. In camp until the 10th, when the brigade moved, in advance of the corps, toward Montgomery. Skirmishing continuous all day and all the next day.
April 11.--City evacuated at night, and occupied by our advance, under Colonel Cooper, next morning at 6 o'clock.
April 14.--Marched from Montgomery, skirmishing for twenty-five miles and taking over 100 prisoners.
April 16.--Arrived at West Point at 1.30 p.m. Fort Tyler carried by assault, and its garrison and armament captured. The rebel General Tyler killed. Fighting stubborn and loss severe.
April 17.--Marched from West Point, destroying railroad as far as La Grange.
April 21--Reached Macon. In camp the remainder of the month. Captured property has all been accounted for.
May 24.--Marched from Macon, Ga.
May 31.--Arrived at Dalton. Distance marched, 204 miles.
March 1.--Division in camp at Gravelly Springs, Ala.; remained there until the 13th.
March 9.--Division reviewed by General Long.
March 11.--Division reviewed by Brevet Major-General Wilson.
March 13.--Command moved to Waterloo and commenced crossing Tennessee River to Chickasaw, Ala. Surplus stores sent back to Nashville.
March 22.--Division moved out on Cherokee road, train and dismounted men accompanying command on the march through Alabama. <ar103_388>
March 31.--Arrived at Montevallo, having crossed Buzzard Roost Mountains, forded the deep and rapid streams (Black and Little Warrior), and crossed the Cahawba on a narrow railroad bridge. Our progress was slow, being much delayed by pontoon train, which was placed in charge of Second Division, and the heavy roads over which we traveled. Had no fighting during the month; 24 prisoners captured and 7 deserters received. Distance marched during month, 204 miles.
April 1.--Encamped near Montevallo. The Second Brigade cut off from balance of division by the First Division; First Brigade and division headquarters moved at daylight on the main road to Selma. Near Randolph struck the enemy's skirmishers and drove them steadily until Ebenezer Church was reached, six miles north of Plantersville. The enemy, 3,000 strong, with four pieces of artillery, attempted a stand. After heavy skirmishing a saber charge was made by four companies of the Seventeenth Indiana, who cut their way through the first line, sabering many, but were met by a heavy fire of artillery and musketry from a much stronger line, and forced to turn to the left, cutting their way out. Captain Taylor and sixteen men charged through and in rear of the enemy's lines, and continued fighting until all were killed or wounded. The rebels, fearing another attack, commenced falling back, and the Fourth Division striking them on the left at this moment, they retreated in confusion, leaving three pieces of artillery and a large number of prisoners in our hands, and losing heavily in killed and wounded. A large amount of sacked corn, which had just been shipped up from Selma, was also captured. General Forrest, who was present in the action, was wounded by a saber cut in the arm.
Our loss was twenty-nine killed, wounded, and missing. Encamped at Plantersville, meeting with no further opposition.
April 2.--Joined by Second Brigade, which had marched forty-six miles the day previous, command moved toward Selma, Second Brigade in advance. No opposition of importance met with until we arrived in front of their works on the Summerfield road about 3 p.m. Inside of the fortification, which consisted of a complete line of earth-works 8 to 12 feet high, 15 feet thick at base, with a ditch in front 4 feet wide and 5 feet deep, partly filled with water, and in front a stockade or picket of heavy posts driven firmly in the ground and sharpened at the ends. Four heavy forts with artillery in position also commanded the intervening ground, which was rough and marshy. The works were manned by 7,000 men under command of Lieutenant-General Forrest. Our division was immediately dismounted and formed on both sides of the road, a part, however, being ordered to the rear to repel an attack which the enemy were making upon our pack stock and led horses, which was handsomely repulsed.
At 5 p.m. the order to advance was given. The enemy opened heavily upon them with artillery and musketry, at times enfilading our whole line. They plied their Spencers rapidly, and marched steadily forward until within 150 yards of the works, when the command to charge was given, and both brigades started with a cheer for the works on a run, sweeping forward in solid line over fences, ravines, sealing the stockade, and on the works with resistless force, the enemy fighting stubbornly and clubbing their guns, but forced to retreat in the greatest disorder, our men continuing the pursuit, capturing many prisoners. In less than twenty-five minutes from the time the command was given to advance the works were ours. No less than twenty pieces of artillery in position (including one 30-pounder Parrott) were captured in our immediate front. Large numbers of small-arms were destroyed, <ar103_389> and many prisoners were taken and ordered to the rear, and were afterward picked up by our own and other commands.
General Long was wounded in the head while in the charge and carried off the field. Col. A. O. Miller, Seventy-second Indiana, commanding First Brigade; Col. C. C. McCormick, Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry; Lieut. Col. J. Biggs, commanding One hundred and twenty-third Illinois Volunteers, were badly wounded, and Lieut. Col. G. W. Dobb, commanding Fourth Ohio Cavalry, was mortally wounded and died on the field.
Our entire loss was 313 killed and wounded and 6 missing. Our entire force in the charge was 1,550 officers and men. The Chicago Board of Trade Battery was in rear of the line on a hill, and contributed greatly to the demoralization of the enemy. Immense arsenals, cannon foundry, and valuable stores fell into our hands, the enemy having no time to destroy anything but a considerable quantity of cotton.
The officers and men acted nobly, and by their heroic exertions the best Confederate army in the west under General Forrest was defeated, and the Confederacy deprived of their most valuable depot of ammunition in the country.
The command remained at Selma until the 8th, engaged in scouting the country to Cahawba and elsewhere, and assisting in destroying the public works. The wagon and pontoon train arrived in safety, having been attacked by a force of rebels, who were gallantly repulsed.
April 8 and 9.--Command crossed the Alabama River on pontoons and marched in rear of First and Fourth Divisions to Montgomery, reaching there on the 13th.
April 14 to 17.--Marched to Columbus in rear of Fourth Division and encamped on Macon road four miles east of Columbus. On the night of the 17th the Fourth Michigan and Third Ohio Cavalry were ordered to make a forced march to Flint River and save the bridges over that stream; this was successfully done, marching all night (forty-five miles), capturing 3 pieces of artillery and 50 prisoners, and saving the important bridges, without the loss of a man. The command marched all night of the 17th and all day of the 18th, making a continuous march of fifty-two miles.
April 19.--Being the advance division, destroyed several large cotton mills near Thomaston, and captured a locomotive and train of cars, also a quantity of stores. One regiment was engaged in tearing up the railroad and destroying a large number of bridges and culverts. Continued with heavy marching and without opposition until the 20th, when within twenty miles of Macon a force of rebel cavalry, 400 strong, was encountered; they were driven by a series of brilliant charges from behind every barricade they took refuge by the Seventeenth Indiana (which regiment was in advance) and completely routed, throwing away their guns and ammunition. A number were taken prisoners and large quantities of arms were picked up. Nine miles from Macon a flag of truce was met, announcing that an armistice had been agreed upon between Generals Sherman and Johnston. No attention was paid to it, fearing it might be a ruse, and the flag was given just five minutes to get out of the way, when our men continued the charge, capturing the entire flag of truce, and not checking rein until they dashed past and over the works into the city of Macon, which was immediately surrendered by General Cobb, together with all the troops and munitions of war.
The fruits of the capture were 350 commissioned officers (including Major-Generals Cobb and Smith and Brigadier-Generals Robertson, <ar103_390> Hackman [Mackall?], and Elzey), 1,995 enlisted men, 60 pieces of artillery, a large amount of small-arms, together with large arsenals, magazines, laboratories, and other public works of great value.
Entire captures during the month, 410 commissioned officers and 2,698 enlisted men. Distance marched, 302 miles. Went into camp near Macon, remaining there the balance of the month.
April 25.--General Long started forNew York for medical treatment. While in Selma a regiment of colored troops, 1,000 strong, was organized and placed under command of Major Archer, Third Ohio Veteran Cavalry, and officered by sergeants from the division.
Second Brigade, Second Division.
March 31.--The command left Elyton, Ala., and moving via Montevallo and Randolph, on the evening of April 1 arrived at Plantersville, having that day marched forty-six miles.
April 2.--The brigade, having the advance of the Cavalry Corps, marched twenty miles, and about 2.30 p.m. arrived in front of Selma. There, inside the fortifications, were General Forrest and about 7,000 troops. After having placed the command in position, Brigadier-General Long, in obedience to orders from the corps commander, ordered the two brigades constituting the division to assault and carry the enemy's works dismounted. By his direction the Fourth Michigan Cavalry was ordered to remain with and support the Chicago Board of Trade Battery, and the Third Ohio to cover the right and rear of the assaulting force, thus leaving but two regiments (the Seventh Pennsylvania and Fourth Ohio) to engage in the charge. As the order was given these two regiments, in connection with three others of the First Brigade, moved forward on the run, and rushing over all obstructions drove the enemy from his works. The Third Ohio and Fourth Michigan being then ordered forward, all entered the city by different routes, assisting in capturing about 2,300 prisoners and 26 pieces of artillery.
April 3 to 8.--The command remained at Selma engaged in scouting the country and destroying the public works. Brigadier-General Long, the division commander, having been wounded, Colonel Minty assumed command of the division, and Lieutenant-Colonel Howland, Third Ohio Cavalry, of the brigade.
April 8.--Crossed the Alabama River by pontoon bridge and marched about five miles.
April 10 to 13.--Marched via Benton to Montgomery.
April 14 to 17.--Marched to Columbus, Ga., which had been occupied by the Fourth Division.
April 17.--During the night the Fourth Michigan and Third Ohio marched forty-five miles and secured possession of the Double Bridges over Flint River, capturing 3 pieces of artillery and 49 prisoners.
April 20.--The command entered Macon, Ga., having just before entering the city been met by a flag of truce, announcing that an armistice had been agreed upon between the American and rebel forces.
From the 20th until the end of the month the brigade remained in the vicinity of Macon.
The distance marched from Elyton to Macon was 319 miles.
May 1 to 23.--Brigade remained at Macon, Ga.
May 7.--In the evening, the effective force of the Fourth Michigan Cavalry left Macon with orders to guard and picket the Ocmulgee River near Abbeville for the purpose of intercepting the fugitive rebel, Jefferson Davis, and to make every effort to capture or kill him, sparing neither horse nor man in the pursuit. <ar103_391>
Upon the morning of the 9th the Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry and Third Ohio Cavalry moved down the Ocmulgee with similar orders to those received by the Fourth Michigan. The latter regiment on the afternoon of the 9th struck the trail of the traitor near Abbeville, and pursuing him vigorously captured him with a part of his family and several officers of his staff at Irwinville, Irwin County, Ga., before daylight on the morning of the 10th. The regiment then returned to Macon. The Seventh Pennsylvania Cavalry and Third Ohio Cavalry remained for a few days in the neighborhood of Irwinville watching for other fugitives, when they were also ordered to return to Macon.
May 23.--The Fourth Michigan and Fourth Ohio being about to be mustered out marched from Macon toward Chattanooga, leaving the veteran regiments (the Seventh Pennsylvania and Third Ohio) at the former place.
May 31.--In the evening the two regiments had arrived at Ringgold, Ga.
March 21.--This command left camp at Chickasaw, Ala., and has been marching until the present time; distance, 206 miles.
March 31.--On this day skirmished with the enemy, losing three men wounded.
During the month [April] this command marched 286 miles.
April 1.--In engagements at Plantersville and Ebenezer Church.
April 2.--In engagement at Selma, Ala.
April 16.--in engagement at Columbus, Ga.
First Brigade, Fourth Division.
During the month of April this command marched from Six-Mile Creek, twelve miles south of Montevallo, Ala., to this point (Macon, Ga.), a distance of 389 miles.
April 1.--Took part in the battle of Ebenezer Church, where Forrest was routed with considerable loss.
April 2.--At Selma the enemy, 6,000 strong, under Forrest, Roddey, Adams, and Armstrong, was met posted behind works of considerable strength, mounting twenty-nine guns. At 6 p.m. this brigade assaulted the right of the enemy's line. At the same moment the Second Division made a similar movement on the enemy's left. The works were carried and the town gained after a brief struggle. Two thousand five hundred prisoners, 3 battle-flags, and 9 guns were captured by this command. The vast arsenal, naval foundry, and machine-shops of the place were destroyed.
April 3, p.m.--The command moved via Summerfield to Fike's Ferry, on Cahawba River, and returned to Selma on the 8th.
April 10.--Marched for Montgomery, Ala., where it arrived on the 12th. City surrendered without a fight.
April 16.--Reached Columbus, Ga., in the evening. The rebel forces under Howell Cobb and Buford occupied strong works on the west side of Chattahoochee River. This brigade assaulted the works at 8 p.m., and gained possession of the city in two hours, having secured the bridge across the river by a hand-to-hand conflict, many of our men crossing over with the fleeing rebels. One thousand five hundred prisoners, 8 battle-flags, <ar103_392> and 22 guns were taken by this brigade. Considering the immense gain, our loss was trifling--5 killed and 30 wounded. The Government arsenals, foundries, mills, and manufactories of quartermaster's goods, with their stores of immense value, were entirely destroyed. Included in the destruction was the new and very formidable gun-boat Jackson, with an armament of six 7-inch rifled guns.
April 21.--Reached Macon. Was met by a flag of truce announcing armistice between Generals Sherman and Johnston.
The entire loss of the brigade on campaign is 8 killed, 65 wounded, and 9 missing. During this march the command subsisted on the country. No long forage for the animals was obtained. Average march, twenty-five miles per day. Health of the command good.
May 5.--The command moved from Macon, Ga., and marched to this point [Atlanta. Ga.], arriving on the 9th; distance, 103 miles. Been in camp since.
Second Brigade, Fourth Division.
May 22 to 26.--Changed station from Atlanta, Ga.. to Chattanooga, Tenn.
[March.]--With the exception of an occasional scouting party sent out for the purpose of obtaining information, the command has been inactive.
May 12.--The First Brigade of this division, in obedience to telegraphic instructions from Major-General Thomas, U.S. Army, proceeded to Saint Louis, Mo.
May 22.--The regiments of the Second Brigade were separated and proceeded to occupy and garrison Tuscumbia, Ala.; Purdy, Tenn.; Eastport, Iuka, Corinth, Okolona, and Aberdeen, Miss.
[March.]--During the past month the Fifth Indiana Cavalry, Eighth Michigan Cavalry, and Sixteenth Illinois Cavalry have been stationed at Pulaski, Tenn., engaged in patrolling the country and scouting for bushwhackers. The Third Tennessee Cavalry, dismounted, has likewise been stationed at Pulaski. The Fourteenth Illinois, Sixth Indiana, and Sixth Tennessee Cavalry have been stationed at Edgefield until March 31, when they joined the division at Pulaski. These regiments are still dismounted. The Fifth Tennessee Cavalry is stationed at Fayetteville, and is engaged in patrolling the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad.
[April.]--During the past month no event of any importance has occurred in this command. The Fourteenth Illinois, Sixth Indiana, Third and Sixth Tennessee Cavalry are still dismounted, and are doing garrison duty at Pulaski, Tenn. The Eighth Michigan, Sixteenth Illinois, and Fifth Indiana Cavalry, mounted, have been engaged in patrolling the country and hunting bushwhackers. The Fifth Tennessee Cavalry is patrolling the line of theNashville and Chattanooga Railroad, and the Eleventh Michigan Cavalry is absent with Major-General Stoneman on his campaign in North Carolina. <ar103_393>
SPECIAL FIELD ORDERS No. 16.
HEADQUARTERS CAVALRY CORPS,
MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Selma, Ala., April 7, 1865.
The brevet major-general commanding congratulates the officers and men of the Cavalry Corps upon their late signal victory.
After a march of nearly 300 miles over bad roads, through a sterile and mountainous country, passing wide and rapid rivers, you, in twelve days, found yourselves in front of Selma--with its arsenals, foundries, and workshops--the most important city in the Southwest. The enemy attempted to delay your march at Ebenezer Church and paid the penalty of his temerity by leaving 3 guns and 200 prisoners in your hands. Selma lay before you surrounded by two lines of intrenchments, the outer one continuous, flanked by impassable swamps, covered by stockades, and defended by ` troops under the command of Lieutenant-General Forrest. Like an avalanche the intrepid soldiers of the Second Division swept over the defenses on the Summerfield road, while the Fourth Division carried those on the Plantersville road. The enemy, astonished and disheartened, broke from their strong works, and Selma was fairly won. The enemy, under Chalmers, attempted to drive in the Second Division picket-line during the battle, and go to the rescue of the rebel garrison, but their efforts were futile, and they were compelled to retreat rapidly beyond the Cahawba. The First Division in the meantime was making hard marches, harassing in front and rear the bewildered rebels under Jackson. The wagon train had been left behind that your march might not be impeded, but has arrived in safety, its guard having frustrated all attempts of the enemy to delay its progress.
Soldiers, you have been called upon to perform long marches and endure privations, but your general relied upon and believed in your capacity and courage to undergo every task imposed upon you. Trusting in your valor, discipline, and armament, he did not hesitate to attack intrenchments believed by the rebel leaders to be impregnable, and which might well have caused double your numbers of veteran infantry to hesitate. You have fully justified his opinions, and may justly regard yourselves invincible. Your achievements will always be considered among the most remarkable in the annals of cavalry:
The fruits of your victory are numerous and important:Twenty-six field guns and one 30-pounder Parrott captured on the field of battle, and over 70 pieces of heavy ordnance in the arsenal and foundry; 2,000 prisoners, a number of battle-flags, the naval foundry and machine-shops, the extensive arsenal, filled with every variety of military munitions, and large quantities of commissary and quartermaster's stores in depot. During your march you have destroyed seven iron-works and foundries, several factories and collieries, many railroad bridges and trestle-works, and large quantities of cotton.
While you exult in the success which has crowned your arms, do not forget the memory of those who died that you might conquer.
By command of Brevet Major-General Wilson:
E. B. BEAUMONT, Major and Assistant Adjutant-General.
Names of officers and men of the Cavalry Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi, mentioned by their respective commanders for bravery and efficiency shown in the late campaign from Chickasaw, Ala., to Macon, Ga.
Name, rank, and regiment. By whom mentioned. Remarks.
Col. J. B. Dorr, Eighth Iowa Brig. Gen. J. T. Croxton
Col. R. M. Kelly, Fourth Kentucky (mounted) Infantry. do
Lieut. Col. Thomas W. Johnston, Second Michigan. do
Maj. W. H. Fidler, Sixth Kentucky. do
Capt. Edmund Penn, Sixth Kentucky. do
Capt. and Asst. Adjt. Gen.--- Sutherland. do
Capt. and Actg. Asst. Insp. Gen. --- Baker. do
Capt.and Provost-Marshal -- Walled. do
Lieut. and Aide-de-Camp Lusk. do
Lieut. and Aide-de-Camp Kelley. do
Lieut. --- Prather, Fourth Indiana. do Aide to general commanding corps.
Quartermaster-Sergeant --- Walker. do
Commissary. Sergeant --- Wentworth. do
Col. --- Cooper, Fourth Kentucky. Col. O.H. La Grange.
Capt. R. S. Hill, Second Indiana. do Wounded at West Point. Left Chickasaw with a leave of absence in his pocket. At West Point was suffering from a wound received two weeks previously.
Lieut. D. S. Moulton, Fourth Indiana. do. Brigade staff.
Lieut. E. S. Chase, First Wisconsin. do Do.
Sergt. Edwin Farel, First Wisconsin. do First Inside the rebel works at West Point.
Col. O. H. La Grange, First Wisconsin, commanding Second Brigade. Recommended by Brig. Gen. John T. Croxton for promotion. To be brigadier-general of volunteers.
Lieut. Col. W. W. Bradley, Seventh Kentucky. do To be colonel by brevet.
Lieut. Col. Henry Harden, First Wisconsin. do Do.
Lieut. Col. Thomas W. Johnston, Second Michigan. do Do.
Maj. W. H. Fidler, Sixth Kentucky. do To be lieutenant-colonel by brevet.
Capt. R. S. Hill, Second Indiana. do To be major.
Capt. James M. McCown, Sixth Kentucky. do To be major by brevet.
Capt. Edmund Penn, Sixth Kentucky. do Do.
Capt. Walter Whittemore, Second Michigan. do Do.
Lieut. Col. Frank White, Seventeenth Indiana. Col. J.G. Vail. Gallant charge on artillery with but four companies of his regiment.
Maj. --- Eldridge, Fourth Michigan. Lieut. Col. B. D. Pritchard.
Capt. --- Hathaway, Fourth Michigan. do.
Capt. --- Potter, Fourth Michigan. do.
Adjt. --- Dickinson Fourth Michigan. do.
Capt. C. T. Hudson, Fourth Michigan. do.
Maj. D. E. Livermore, Third Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do.
Names of officer and men mentioned for bravery and efficiency, &c.--Continued
Name, rank, and regiment. By whom mentioned. Remarks.
Private John H. Shoef, Third Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. Maj. D. E. Livermore.
Captured battle-flag of Twelfth Mississippi Cavalry and the regimental
commander, and was in advance till all the works were taken.
Sergt. John Morgan. One hundred and twenty-third Illinois. Capt. Owen Wiley Planted the first flag on the works at Selma.
Private Lemuel B. Edwards(a) Lieut. Col. Frank White Wounded while leading a charge at Ebenezer Church.
Corpl. John A. Kidney(a) do Coolness and bravery in action at all times.
Maj. L. S. Kilborn. Seventy-second Indiana. Lieut. Col. C.G. Thomson.
Private L. B Edwards. Seventy-second Indiana. do
Wounded while leading a mounted charge April 1.
Lieut. L C.Remington. Fourth Michigan. Martin Archer, major, commanding colored troops.
Capt. W. G. Young, Ninety-eighth Illinois. do
Lieut. C. L. Connor, Seventh Pennsylvania. do
Doctor Biggs, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do
Sergt. John W. Deen, Seventeenth Indiana. Maj. J.J. Weller
Private Reuben Phillips, Seventeenth Indiana. do Captured flags at Macon, Ga.
First Lieut. James H. McDowell, Seventeenth Indiana. do
Private A. R. Hudson, Seventeenth Indiana. do Captured a flag in a skirmish near Culloden, Ga.
Private J. Davis, Seventeenth Indiana. do
Corpl. --- Bottorff, Seventeenth Indiana. do Found four 2-pounder guns buried at Macon.
Corpl. John H. Booth, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. Capt. W. W. Shoemaker First on the works at Selma, April 2.
Capt. -- Hofman, Ninety-eighth Illinois. Lieut. Col. E. Kitchell Instantly killed.
Capt. --- Flood, Ninety-eighth Illinois. do
Capt. N. B. Thistlewood, Ninety-eighth Illinois. do After being severely wounded kept up with the command over a mile, Selma, April 2.
Maj. J. J. Weller, Seventeenth Indiana. Lieut. Col. Frank White
Adjt. --- Doyle. Seventeenth Indiana. do
Lieut. J. H. McDowell, Seventeenth Indiana. do
Capt. T. W. Scott do Colonel Minty's staff.
Lieut. --- Culbertson do Do.
Col. J. G. Vail, Seventeenth Indiana. Col A. O. Miller
Lieut. Col. E. Kitchell, Ninety-eighth Illinois. do
Lieut. Col. Jonathan Biggs, One hundred and twenty-third Illinois. do
Lieut. Col. C. G. Thomson, Seventy-second Indiana. do
Lieut. H. M. Ashmore. One hundred and twenty-third Illinois. do Aide-de-camp, first to enter the rebel works at Selma, mounted.
Capt. --- Wiley, One hunred and twenty-third Illinois. Col J. G. Vail With a squad of men captured 20 prisoners and 2 pieces of artillery 300 yards in advance of the line.
Capt. --- Woods, Ohio hundred and twenty-third Illinois. do
Capt. --- Delong, One hundred and twenty-third Illinois. do
Capt. O. F. Bane do
Lieut. G. B Sweet do Colonel Miller's staff.
Capt. W. A. Owens do Provost-marshal, First Brigade.
Capt. John C. Scott do Brigade inspector, First Brigade.
Names of officers and men mentioned for bravery and efficiency, &c.--Continued.
Name, rank, and regiment. By whom mentioned. Remarks.
Sergt. Jackson S.Ball, Seventy-second Indiana. Col. J. G. Vail For his energy in performance of his duty at all times. Rode under terrific fire to report Colonel Miller's being wounded to Colonel Vail, next in command.
Lieut. Col. B. D. Pritchard, Fourth Michigan. Col. R. H. G. Minty
Lieut. Col. Frank White, Seventeenth Indiana. do
Capt. ---- Moore, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. Earnestly recommended by Colonel Minty for brevet.
Capt.----Richardson, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do
Maj. --- Burns, Fourth Michigan do Acting assistant adjutant-general, Second Brigade.
Maj. --- Greene, Seventh Pennsylvania do Acting assistant inspector.general, Second Brigade.
Capt. T. W. Scott, Ninety-eighth Illinois. Brig. Gen. Eli Long Acting assistant adjutant-general.
Capt. W. W. Shoemaker, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do Aide-de-camp.
Lieut. Henry Deering, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do Do.
Lieut. S.S. Culbertson, Nineteenth U.S. Infantry. do Assistant commissary of musters.
Capt. W. B. Gates, Third Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do Provost-marshal.
Capt. J. N. Squire, Third Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do Acting assistant inspector-general.
Capt. P. B. Lewis, Third Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do Topographical engineer.
Lieut. J. B. Hayden, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do Acting commissary of subsistnce.
Lieut. W. N. McDonald, One hundred and twenty-third Illinois. do Ordnance officer.
Capt. --- Hartranft, Seventh Pennsylvania. do Commanding escort.
Surg. Fred. Corfe do Chief surgeon.
Maj. Martin Archer, Third Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do Commanding train guard.
Capt. S. B. Coe, Third Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do Acting assistant quartermaster, with pioneers.
Lieut. J. B. Patten, Seventeenth Indiana. do Do.
Lieut. John Bennett, Fourth Michigan. do Do.
Private Henry Prince, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do Orderly.
Bugler Henry Gieble, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do
Capt. T. W. Scott, Ninety-eighth Illinois. Recommended by Brigadier-General Long for promotion. To be captain and assistant adjutant-general, U.S. Volunteers.
Col. A. O. Miller, Seventy-second Indiana. do To be brigadier-general.
Col. R.H.G. Minty, Fourth Michigan. do Do.
Col. C. C. McCormick, Seventh Pennsylvania. .do To be brevet brigadier-general.
Col. J. G. Vail, Seventeenth Indiana. do Do.
Lieut. CoL Jonathan Biggs, One Hundred and twenty-third Illinois. do Do.
Lieut. Col. E. Kitchell, Ninety-eighth Illinois. do Do.
Lieut. Col. Frank White, Seventeenth Indiana. do Do.
Lieut. Col. G.W. Dobb, Fourth Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do Do.
Names of officers and men mentioned for bravery and efficiency, &c.--Continued.
Name, rank, and regiment. By whom mentioned. Remarks.
Bvt. Maj. James W. Latta Bvt. Maj. Gen. E.Upton Assistant Adjutant-General.
Capt. Tom C. Gilpin do Acting aide-de-camp.
Lieut. J. Sloan Keck do Acting aide-de-camp.
Lieut. Peter R. Keck do Ordnance officer.
First Lieut. George D. Womeldorff, Seventh Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. Bvt. Brig. Gen. A.J. Alexander. Gallant conduct with his company (L) at Ebeneser Church.
Col. --- Garrard, Seventh Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do
Col. B. B. Eggleston, First Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do Recommended for promotion by brevet by General Alexander.
Lieut.---Mitchell(a) do Do.
Lieut. J. A. O. Yeoman (a) do Recommended for promotion by brevet by General Alexander.
Lieut. --- McKee (a) do Do.
Lieut. Samuel Dryden (a) do Do.
Sergt. H. L. Birdsall, Third Iowa. Bvt Brig. Gen. E. F. Winslow Captured garrison flag and bearer near Columbus, Ga., April 16,1885.
Private Andrew W. Tibbets, Third Iowa. do Captured flag of Austin's battery and bearer at Columbus, Ga., April 16,1865.
Private John H. Hays, Fourth Iowa. do Captured standard and bear at Columbus, Ga., April 16, 1865.
Corpl. Richard H. Morgan, Fourth Iowa. do Do.
Private Nicholas Fanning, Fourth Iowa. do Captured silk C. S. flag and two staff officers at Selma, Ala., April 2.
Sergt. Norman F. Bates, Fourth Iowa. do Captured a rebel and standard at Columbus, Ga.
Private Charles A. Swan, Fourth Iowa. do Captured flag of Eleventh Mississippi and bearer at Selma, Ala.
Private Richard H. Cosgriff, Fourth Iowa. do Captured standard and bearer at Columbus, Ga.
Private John Kinney, Fourth Iowa. do Captured standard and bearer of Tenth Missouri Battery, Columbus, Ga.
Private Edward J. Bebb, Fourth Iowa. do Captured flag left by the rebels, Columbus, Ga.
Private James P. Miller, Fourth Iowa. do Captured sergeant and standard of Twelfth Mississippi Cavalry, Selma, Ala.
Capt. Lot Abraham, Fourth Iowa. do To be major by brevet.
Capt. Asa B. Fitch, Fourth Iowa. do Do.
Capt. John D. Brown, Third Iowa. do Do.
Capt. George W. Johnson, Third Iowa. do Do.
Capt. R. B. M. McGlasson, Tenth Missouri. do Do.
Capt. Samuel J. McKee, Third Iowa. do Do.
First Lieut. Ferdinand Owen, Tenth Missouri. do To be captain by brevet.
Second Lieut. Loyd H. Dillon, Fourth Iowa. do To be first lieutenant by brevet.
Col. John W. Noble, Third Iowa. Recommended for promotion by Bvt. Maj. Gen. E. Upton. To be brigadier-general by brevet.
Col. B. B. Eggleston, First Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do Do.
Bvt. Maj. and Asst. Adjt. Gen. James W. Latta. do To be major and assistant adjutant-general.
Capt. Theresa C. Gilpin, Third Iowa. do To be major by brevet.
Maj. W. W. Woods, Fourth Iowa. do To be lieutenant-colonel by brevet.
Capt. J. H. Simpson, Fourth Michigan. do Acting assistant quartemaster, for commission.
First Lieut. T H.Brown,Third Iowa. do Acting commissary of subsistence, for commission.
First Lieut. John S. Keck, Fourth Iowa. do To be captain by brevet.
Second Lieut. Peter R. Keck, Fourth Iowa. do Do.
Capt. Lot Abraham, Fourth Iowa. do To be major by brevet.
Capt. Asa B. Fitch, Fourth Iowa. do Do.
Names of officers and men mentioned for bravery and efficiency, &c.--Continued.
Name, rank, and regiment. By whom mentioned. Remarks.
Capt. John D. Brown, Third Iowa. Recommended for promotion by Bvt. Maj. Gen. E. Upton. To be major by brevet.
Capt. George W. Johnson, Third Iowa. do. Do.
Capt. R. B. M. McGlasson, Tenth Missouri. do Do.
First Lieut. George D. Womeldorff, Seventh Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do To be captain by brevet.
First Lieut. J.A. O. Yeoman, First Ohio Volunteer Cavalry. do Do.
First Lieut. Ferdinand Owen, Tenth Missouri. do To be first lieutenant by brevet.
Second Lieut. Loyd H. Dillon, Fourth Iowa. do Do.
Sergt. Robert Skiles, Fourth Iowa. Recommended by General Upton to receive medal of honor. For individual bravery at Girard.
Private Robert C. Wood, Fourth Iowa. do Being taken prisoner, he escaped, and with a few others took prisoner the colonel and adjutant of the regiment that had held him.
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, MIL. DIV. OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Macon Ga., June 27, 1865.
J. H. WILSON, Brevet Major-General.
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, MIL. DIV. OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Macon, Ga., May 16, 1865.
GENERAL: I have the honor to transmit herewith twenty-four stand of colors, captured from the enemy during the late campaign in Alabama and Georgia, with the circumstances connected with the capture of each.
1. Sergt. H. L. Birdsall, B Company, Third Iowa Cavalry, "captured the bearer and flag while my company was assailing the line of works on left of Summerville road, near Columbus, Ga., April 16, 1865."
2. Private Andrew W. Tibbets, I Company, Third Iowa. Cavalry, at Columbus, Ga., captured the bearer--a sergeant--and flag of Austin's battery, inside the line of works and to the right of the four-gun battery on the right of the enemy's line.
3. John H. Hays, private, F Company, Fourth Iowa Cavalry, at Columbus, Ga., "captured the standard and bearer, who tore it from the staff and tried to escape; he fired two shots from his revolver, wounding one man of my regiment at my side."
4. Corpl. Richard H. Morgan, A Company, Fourth Iowa Cavalry, at Columbus, Ga., "I captured the standard and bearer in the first charge my company made, inside the line of works, April 16; the bearer contested with me for its possession."
5. Private Nicholas Fanning, B Company, Fourth Iowa Cavalry, captured at Selma, Ala., in the city, an elegant silk C. S. flag and two staff officers, April 2, 1865.
6. Sergt. Norman F. Bates, E Company, Fourth Iowa Cavalry, at Columbus, Ga., ApriI 16, 1865, took a rebel and standard in the street three blocks from the bridge. <ar103_399>
7. Private Charles A. Swan, K Company, Fourth Iowa Cavalry, while following the retreating enemy through and out of Selma, Ala., April 2, 1865, captured one flag and the bearer, who said it belonged to Eleventh Mississippi.
8. Private Richard H. Cosgriff, L Company, Fourth Iowa Cavalry, at Columbus, Ga., on the west end of the bridge, "captured a stand-and and the bearer, having to knock him down with the butt of my gun before I could get possession of the flag," April 16, 1865.
9. Private John Kinney, L Company, Fourth Iowa Cavalry, captured at Columbus, Ga., 16th April, a standard and bearer of Tenth Missouri Battery. "I had a tussle with the fellow to get the flag."
10. Private Edward J. Bebb, D Company, Fourth Iowa Cavalry, at Columbus, Ga., April 16, about 100 yards from the bridge and in the line of works, took a flag, the rebels near it running away before our men, leaving the flag.
11. Private James P. Miller, D Company, Fourth Iowa Cavalry, captured at Selma, Ala., April 2, 1865, a sergeant and standard of Twelfth Mississippi Cavalry. He was mounted and trying to get away.
12. The large flag of the Sixth Regiment Arkansas Volunteers was captured on a train at the railroad depot on occupying Macon, by Sergt. John W. Deen, of Company C, Seventeenth Indiana Volunteers.
13. The flag marked "Captured by Reuben Phillips, Company C, Seventeenth Indiana Volunteers" (battle-flag), was got at the same time and place.
14. The battle-flag marked "Captured by First Lieut. James H. McDowell, Company B, Seventeenth Indiana Volunteers," was surrendered to him by Colonel Cumming in the rebel works on the Columbus road, one mile and a half from Macon, Ga., on the surrender of said works.
15. The rebel flag, marked on the flag "Worrill Grays," was captured by Privates A. R. Hudson and J. Davis from a battalion of militia near Culloden, Ga., after a sharp skirmish, in which a small party of the regiment ran about 200 militia.
16. The battle-flag of the Twelfth Mississippi Cavalry, C. S. Army, was captured, with the commanding officer of the regiment, Major Cox, on the 15th instant, about six miles from Tuskegee, Ala., by John H. Shoef, private, Company H, Third Ohio Volunteer Cavalry.
17. The Palmetto flag was carried by Buford's (rebel) brigade, and was captured by Seventh Kentucky in a gallant charge against double its numbers near Montgomery, Ala., l'2th April, 1865.
18 and 19. Two colors of Clanton's (Alabama) brigade, captured by Second Indiana, near Montgomery, Ala., 12th April, 1865.
20 and 21. Two U.S. flags (regimental colors) captured by enemy (Tyler's brigade) near Etowah Creek, Ga., recaptured by Seventh Kentucky at Fort Tyler, Ga., 16th April, 1865.
22. Flag of Dixie Rangers captured by detachment Fourth Indiana Cavalry in skirmish near Barnesville, Ga., 19th April, 1865.
23. The garrison flag of Fort Tyler, Ga., captured in the assault upon Fort Tyler at West Point, Ga., by detachments from First Wisconsin, Second Indiana, and Seventh Kentucky, 16th April, 1865.
24. A flag captured in the assault on Selma, Ala., April 2, 1865, by the staff of Brigadier-General Long, commanding Second Division, Cavalry Corps.
I have the honor to recommend the following-named enlisted men as worthy to receive medals of honor: Sergt. H. L. Birdsall, B Company, Third Iowa Cavalry; Sergt. Norman F. Bates, E Company, Fourth Iowa Cavalry; Corpl. Richard H. Morgan, A Company, Fourth Iowa <ar103_400> Cavalry; Private A. R. Hudson, Seventeenth Indiana Volunteers; Private J. Davis, Seventeenth Indiana Volunteers; Private Andrew W. Tibbets, I Company, Third Iowa Cavalry; Private John H. Hays, F Company, Fourth Iowa Cavalry; Private Nicholas Fanning, B Company, Fourth Iowa Cavalry; Private Charles A. Swan, K Company, Fourth Iowa Cavalry; Private Richard H. Cosgriff, L Company, Fourth Iowa Cavalry; Private Edward J. Bebb, D Company, Fourth Iowa Cavalry; Private James P. Miller, D Company, Fourth Iowa Cavalry. The flags bear inscriptions, which designate the date and place of capture.
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. H. WILSON, Brevet Major-General, Commanding.
Brig. Gen. WILLIAM D. WHIPPLE, Chief of Staff and Assistant Adjutant-General,
Hdqrs. Department of the Cumberland, Nashville, Tenn.
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, MIL. DIV. OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Macon, Ga., April 23, 1865.
Brig. Gen. E. D. TOWNSEND, U.S. Army,
GENERAL: I have the honor to recommend the following promotions:
Bvt. Maj. Gen. E. Upton, U.S. Volunteers, to be major-general of volunteers, to date from April 1, 1865, for personal gallantry and good management in the engagement at Ebenezer Station, Ala.; also at Columbus, Ga., where by a night attack with 300 men he carried the rebel works and captured the bridge over the Chattahoochee River, took 1,200 prisoners and 52 guns. Throughout the entire campaign General Upton has exhibited the highest qualities of a general officer and demonstrated his fitness for advancement. Brig. Gen. Eli Long, U.S. Volunteers, to be brevet major-general of volunteers, for personal gallantry and good management in the command of his division in the assault of the fortifications at Selma, resulting in the capture of the place, 2,700 prisoners, 32 guns in position, April 2, 1865. Brig. Gen. E. M. McCook to be brevet major-general for uniform good conduct throughout the expedition.
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. H. WILSON, Brevet Major-General.
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, MIL. DIV. OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Macon, Ga., May 19, 1865.
ADJUTANT-GENERAL U.S. ARMY,
I have the honor to recommend and request brevet appointments for the following-named officers of my staff for gallant and meritorious service:
Maj. E. B. Beaumont, assistant adjutant-general, to be brevet lieutenant-colonel and brevet colonel for faithful and intelligent discharge of his duties and for gallantry in action on the West Harpeth River December 17, 1864, during the pursuit of Hood, and at the battle of Selma, April 2, 1865. Maj. M. H. Williams, acting assistant inspector-general, to be brevet lieutenant-colonel for faithful discharge of his duties, gallantry at Selma and during the campaign in Alabama and <ar103_401> Georgia. Capt. H. E. Noyes, Second U.S. Cavalry, aide-de-camp, to be brevet major for gallantry at Selma and for meritorious service during the recent campaign in Alabama and Georgia. Capt. L. M. Hosea, Sixteenth U. S. Infantry, commissary of musters, to be brevet major for gallantry at Selma and Columbus and throughout the campaign in Alabama and Georgia. Capt. W. W. Van Antwerp, aide-de-camp, to be major for meritorious service, gallantry at Selma and Columbus, and efficient service throughout the campaign in Alabama and Georgia. Capt. G. H. Kneeland, provost-marshal, to be major for meritorious service, gallantry at Selma and Columbus, and efficient service throughout the campaign in Alabama and Georgia. Lieutenant Heywood, engineer officer, to be captain for meritorious and gallant service throughout the campaign in Alabama and Georgia. Lieutenant Dangler, ambulance officer, to be brevet captain for gallantry at Selma and throughout the campaign in Alabama and Georgia. Captain McBurney, ordnance officer, to be brevet major for meritorious and gallant service throughout the campaign in Alabama and Georgia. Surg. Francis Salter, U.S. Volunteers, medical director, to be brevet lieutenant-colonel for meritorious and efficient discharge of his duties in caring for the sick and wounded throughout the campaign in Alabama and Georgia. Capt. E. B. Carling, assistant quartermaster, U.S. Army, to be major and brevet lieutenant-colonel for faithful and energetic discharge of his duties as chief quartermaster of the Cavalry Corps. Capt. William E. Brown, acting assistant quartermaster, to be brevet major for faithful and meritorious discharge of his arduous duties throughout the campaign in Alabama and Georgia. Lieutenant Brown, acting commissary of subsistence, to be captain for the faithful and meritorious discharge of his duties throughout the campaign in Alabama and Georgia. Lieutenant Prather, acting aide-de-camp, to be captain for meritorious and gallant service throughout the campaign in Alabama and Georgia.
J. H. WILSON, Brevet Major-General.
HDQRS. CAVALRY CORPS, MIL. DIV. OF THE MISSISSIPPI, Macon, Ga., May 19, 1865.
ADJUTANT-GENERAL U.S. ARMY,
GENERAL: I have the honor to recommend and request brevet appointments for the following-named officers:
First Lieut. Joseph Hedges, Fourth U.S. Cavalry, to be captain and brevet major for conspicuous gallantry during the pursuit of Hood after the battle of Nashville, charging the enemy's rear guard on the West Harpeth River, leading his regiment, capturing three pieces of artillery. First Lieut. Joseph Rendlebrock, Second Lieut. John G. Webster, Second Lieut. James Callehan, and Second Lieut. William Bayard, Fourth U.S. Cavalry, to be captains and brevet majors for gallantry during the pursuit of Hood after the battle of Nashville and in the charge of the regiment against the earth-works at Selma, Ala. First Lieut. William O'Connell, commanding Fourth U.S. Cavalry, for conspicuous gallantry during the charge of his regiment upon the enemy's earthworks at Selma, Ala., to be captain and brevet major. Second Lieut. Wirt Davis, Fourth U.S. Cavalry, to be captain and brevet major for conspicuous gallantry during the charge of his regiment against the earth-works at Selma, Ala., and for good conduct on all occasions. First Lieuts. John Lee, Edwin J. Conway, and Sebastian Gunther, Fourth «26 R R--VOL XLIX, PT I» <ar103_402> U.S. Cavalry, to be brevet captains for faithful and intelligent discharge of duty during the pursuit of Hood and throughout the present campaign above mentioned. The officers of the Fourth U.S. Cavalry have been distinguished throughout the war for gallantry and faithful discharge of duty.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. H. WILSON, Brevet Major-General.
WAR DEPARTMENT, ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE, Washington, June 17, 1865.
Maj. Gen. GEORGE. H. THOMAS, U. S. Army,
Commanding Department of the Cumberland:
SIR: I have the honor to inclose herewith for delivery the medals of honor awarded by the Secretary of War to the following-named soldiers of the command of Maj. Gen. J. H. Wilson for their gallantry during the late campaign in Georgia: Sergt. H. L. Birdsall, Company B, Third Iowa Cavalry; Sergt. Norman F. Bates, Company E, Fourth Iowa Cavalry; Corpl. Richard H. Morgan, Company A, Fourth Iowa Cavalry; Private A. R. Hudson, Company C, Seventeenth Indiana (mounted) Infantry; Private J. Davis, Company F, Seventeenth Indiana (mounted) Infantry; Private Andrew W. Tibbets, Company I, Third Iowa Cavairy; Private John H. Hays, Company F, Fourth Iowa Cavalry; Private Nicholas Fanning, Company B, Fourth Iowa Cavalry; Private Charles A. Swan, Company K, Fourth Iowa Cavalry; Private Richard H. Cosgriff, Company L, Fourth Iowa Cavalry; Private Edward J. Bebb, Company D, Fourth Iowa Cavalry; Private James P. Miller, Company D, Fourth Iowa Cavalry.
I am, sir, &c.,
E. D. TOWNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General.
3. Bedford Forrest (excerpt from address by
Gen. James R. Chalmers, in lieu of a report by Forrest)
Southern Historical Society Papers. Vol. XVI. Richmond, Va., January-December. 1888. Southern Genius. PP 280-295
"Lieutenant General Nathan Bedford Forrest And His Campaigns."
I have selected as my subject on this occasion the campaigns of Lieutenant General Nathan Bedford Forrest, who was my immediate commander during the last year and a half of the war, and who, if not the greatest military genius, was certainly the greatest revolutionary leader on our side. He was restrained by no knowledge of law or constitution. He was embarrassed by no preconceived ideas of military science. His favorite maxim was, "War means fighting, and fighting means killing." Without the slightest knowledge of them, he seemed by instinct to adopt the tactics of the great masters of the military art, if there be any such art.
Hamley says, "Nothing is more common than to find in writings on military
matters reference to 'the rules of war,' and assertions such as some general
'owed his success to knowing when to dispense with the rules of war.' It
would be difficult to say what these rules are or in what code they are
embodied." Colonel T.W. White, a clear headed officer of my command, expressing
the same idea more quaintly, said: "It all consists in two words -- luck
and pluck." Forrest possessed both of these in an eminent degree; and his
successes, many of which were achieved with men who had never been drilled
one hour together, illustrated what might have been accomplished by untrained
Fall Of Selma.
General Forrest was now promoted to Lieutenant General, and his command largely increased and reorganized. The First division, commanded by Chalmers, was composed of all the Mississippi cavalry, reorganized into three brigades, under Armstrong, Wirt Adams and Starke.
The Second division, commanded by Buford, was composed of the Kentucky brigade and the Alabama cavalry.
The Third division, commanded by W.H. Jackson, was composed of all the Tennessee cavalry in two brigades, under Bell and <shv7_485>Campbell -- a force of not less than ten thousand effective men if they could have been concentrated.
At the same time -- Major General James Wilson was reorganizing his cavalry just north of the Tennessee river, at points favorable for the passage of that stream, either to invade Mississippi or Alabama; and on the 18th of March he crossed near Chickasaw station, Alabama, with seventeen thousand men, five thousand of whom were dismounted, according to Andrews' history of the Mobile campaign.
On the 16th of March, 1865, General Dick Taylor held a council of war in West Point, Mississippi, at which were present Forrest, Chalmers, Buford and Jackson, and it was then determined that the object of Wilson's movements was the destruction of the iron works at Montevallo and the shops at Selma, and it was decided that all our forces should move by the shortest lines to Selma, and engineer officers were sent at once to construct pontoon bridges over the Black Warrior at Cahawba. On the 24th of March, Wilson started from Chickasaw station. On the 25th two brigades of the First division started from Pickensville, Alabama, and Jackson from West Point, Mississippi. The bridge across the Warrior had not been completed when Armstrong s brigade reached it, and it was detained here one day. On the 30th they reached Marion, Alabama and finding that nothing had been done towards bridging the Cahawba, a staff officer was sent by railroad to Selma for pontoon boats, and the division commander was preparing to move on, when an order came from General Forrest, telling him of the enemy's movement on Tuscaloosa, and ordering him to halt and await orders. This caused a delay of one day, when General Taylor, at Selma, hearing of it, telegraphed orders for the First division to move to Plantersville. Before the division could reach Plantersville, orders came from General Forrest to move to Randolph, about twenty miles further north. Before the division could reach Randolph, Forrest had been driven from there, and it turned to Plantersville again. The Ochmulgee swamp had now to be crossed, and Armstrong's brigade was five hours in going one mile across it. When this brigade had gone over, it was utterly impassable to the artillery and Starke's brigade; and these, under the direction of a neighborhood guide, were moved to a crossing five miles above, and after working all night, got over about daylight the next morning, and moving rapidly reached Selma just in time to see it burn.
Forrest, moving with Jackson's division, heard of Croxton's movement on Tuscaloosa, and changed the march of this division by that place. Jackson gallantly met and defeated Croxton, but by this movement was thrown so far out of his line of march that it was impossible for him to reach Selma in time to assist in its defence, and it fell. The fall of Richmond soon followed the fall of Selma, and the Confederate flag went down to rise no more forever. <shv7_486>
His Farewell Address.
It has been said that Forrest was uneducated, and this is true; but his ideas, when properly clothed in correct language, were pointed and strong, and he was exceedingly tenacious that his own ideas, and not those of the writer, should be expressed by those who wrote for him. His strong and touching final address to his troops, though shaped by another, was his own creation, and he felt all that the language imported when he said: "Civil war, such as you have just passed through, naturally engenders feelings of animosity, hatred and revenge. It is our duty to divest ourselves of all such feelings, and as far as in our power to do so, to cultivate friendly feelings towards those with whom we have so long contended and heretofore so widely differed. Neighborhood feuds, personal animosities and private differences should be blotted out, and when you return home a manly, straightforward course of conduct will secure the respect even of your enemies. Whatever your responsibilities may be to government, to society, or to individuals meet them like men. . . . I have never on the field of battle sent you where I was unwilling to go myself, nor would I now advise you to a course which I felt myself unwilling to pursue. You have been good soldiers; you can be good citizens. Obey the laws, preserve your honor, and the government to which you have surrendered can afford to be and will be magnanimous." Like the cause he loved, he is dead. In coming years, when the bitterness of strife has passed away, when that mystic harp, whose chords connect the graves of the dead with the hearts of the living, shall vibrate the music of a restored Union, and some blind old bard shall sing the praises of American heroes, while eager children listen to their deeds of valor, the story of none will awaken loftier feelings of emulation than -- Forrest -- the wizard of the saddle.
At the conclusion of General Chalmers' address, on motion of Attorney
General Field, of Virginia, the thanks of the meeting were returned to
General Chalmers for his "able and eloquent address," and a copy solicited
4. OPPOSING FORCES IN WILSON'S RAID, MARCH 22D-APRIL 20TH, 1865.
THE UNION FORCES. Cavalry Corps, Military Division of the Mississippi.-Brevet Maj.-Gen. James H. Wilson.
Escort: 4th U. S., Lieut. William O'Connell.
First Division, Brig.-Gen. Edward M. McCook; (after April 20th) Brig;.-Gen. John T. Croxton.
First Brigade, Brig.-Gen. John T. Croxton: 8th Iowa, Col. Joseph B. Dorr; 4th Ky. (M't'd Inf'y), Col. Robert M. Kelly; 6th Ky., Maj. William H. Fidler; 2d Mich., Lieut.Col. Thomas W. Johnston. Second Brigade, Col. Oscar H. La Grange: 2d Ind. (battalion), Capt. Roswell S. Hill (w), Capt. Joseph B. Williams; 4th Ind., Lieut.-Col. Horace P. Lamson; 4th Ky., Col. Wickliffe Cooper; 7th Ky., Lieut.-Col. William W. Bradley (w), Maj. Andrews Bloom; 1st Wis., Lieut.-Col. Henry Harnden (w). Artillery: 18th Ind. Batt'y, Capt: Moses M. Beck.
Second Division, Brig.-Gen. Eli Long (w), Col. Robert H. G. Minty.
First brigade (mounted infantry), Col. Abram O. Miller (w), Col. Jacob G. Vail: 98th Ill., Lieut.-Col. Edward Kitchell; 123d Ill., Lieut.-Col. Jonathan Biggs (w), Capt. Owen Wiley; 17th Ind., Col. Jacob G. Vail, Lieut.-Col. Frank White; 72d Ind., Lieut.-Col. Chester G. Thomson. Second Brigade, Col. Robert H. G. Minty, Lieut.-Col. Horace N. Howland: 4th Mich., Lieut.-Col. Benjamin D. Pritchard; 3d Ohio, Lieut.-Col. Horace N. Howland, ivermore; 4th Ohio, Lieut.-Col. George W. Dobb (k), Capt. William W. Shoemaker; 7th Pa., Col. Charles C. McCormick (w), Lieut.-Col. James F. Andress. Artillery: Chicago Board of Trade Battery, Capt. George I. Robinson.
Fourth Division, Brig.-Gen. Emory Upton; (after April 20th) Brevet Brig.-Gen. Edward F. Winslow.
First Brigade, Col. Edward F. Winslow: 3d Iowa, Col. John W. Noble; 4th Iowa, Lieut.-Col. John H. Peters; 10th Mo., Lieut.-Col. Frederick W. Benteen. Second Brigade, Brevet Brig.-Gen. A. J. Alexander: 5th Iowa, Col. J. Morris Young; 1st Ohio, Col. Beroth B. Eggleston; 7th Ohio, Col. Israel Garrard. Artillery: I, 1st U. S., Lieut. George B. Rodney. The effective strength of the foregoing commands was about 13,000. The loss in action aggregated 99 killed, 598 wounded, and 28 missing = 725.
THE CONFEDERATE FORCES. Cavalry Corps, Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana. Lieut.-Gen. N. B. Forrest.
Chalmers Division, Brig.-Gen. James R. Chalmers.
(Composed of the brigades of Brig.-Gens. Frank C. Armstrong, Wirt Adams, and Peter B. Starke.)
Jackson's Division, Brig.-Gen. William H. Jackson.
(Composed of the brigades of Brig: Gens. Tyree H. Bell and Alexander W. Campbell.)
Roddey's Brigade, Brig.-Gen. Philip D. Roddey.
Crossland Brigade, Col. Ed. Crossland.
There were also some militia and other forces under Major-Generals Howell Cobb and G. W. Smith, and Brigadier-Generals Felix H. Robertson, Daniel W. Adams, and R. C. Tyler and others.